Long-Term Resource Adequacy, Long-Term Flexibility Requirements, and Revenue Sufficiency

  • Erik Ela
  • Michael Milligan
  • Aaron Bloom
  • Audun Botterud
  • Aaron Townsend
  • Todd Levin
Part of the Studies in Systems, Decision and Control book series (SSDC, volume 144)


Variable generation (VG) can reduce market prices over time and also the energy that other suppliers can sell in the market. The suppliers that are needed to provide capacity and flexibility to meet the long-term reliability requirements may, therefore, earn less revenue. This chapter discusses the topics of resource adequacy and revenue sufficiency—that is, determining and acquiring the quantity of capacity that will be needed at some future date and ensuring that those suppliers that offer the capacity receive sufficient revenue to recover their costs. The focus is on the investment time horizon and the installation of sufficient generation capability. First, the chapter discusses resource adequacy, including newer methods of determining adequacy metrics. The chapter then focuses on revenue sufficiency and how suppliers have sufficient opportunity to recover their total costs. The chapter closes with a description of the mechanisms traditionally adopted by electricity markets to mitigate the issues of resource adequacy and revenue sufficiency and discusses the most recent market design changes to address these issues.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Erik Ela
    • 1
  • Michael Milligan
    • 2
  • Aaron Bloom
    • 2
  • Audun Botterud
    • 3
  • Aaron Townsend
    • 2
  • Todd Levin
    • 3
  1. 1.Electric Power Research InstitutePalo AltoUSA
  2. 2.National Renewable Energy LaboratoryGoldenUSA
  3. 3.Argonne National LaboratoryArgonneUSA

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