Measurement and Measurement Scales

Chapter
Part of the Progress in IS book series (PROIS)

Abstract

This chapter examines measurement and measurement scales in business research. Measurement is defined in terms of the relationship to related factors and brief illustration of variables and types of data provided, differentiating between scientific terms, including concepts, constructs and operational definitions. An examination of measurement levels, including nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio levels, is provided. The chapter examines the measurement of attitudes distinguishing how they are form by a variety of forces, including feeling, thinking and personal experiences and values, resulting from behaviour. Several factors, related to measurement scale, need to be considered before making the application decision of a measurement scale. The chapter also examines three types of measurement scales including rating, ranking and categorization.

References

  1. 1.
    D.R. Cooper, P.C. Schindler, Busienss Research Methods, 12th edn. (McGraw Hill, New York, 2014)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    D.C. Cooper, P.C. Schindler, Business Research Methods (McGraw Hill, New York, 2008)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    G.A. Bluman, Elementary Statistics, 6th edn. (McGraw Hill, New York, 2008)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    A. Bryman, Social Research Methods (Oxford University Press Inc., New York, 2004), p. 5Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    W.G. Zikmund, Business Research Methods (The Dryden Press, Orlando, 1991)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    R. Mittal, P. Dorfman, Servant Leadership. J. World Bus. 47(4), 555–570 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    A. Field, Discovering Statistics Using SPSS, 3rd edn. (Sage Publications Ltd, London, 2009)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    W.G. Zigmund, Business Research Methods, 9th edn. (Cengage Learning, Mason, 2013)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    S.L. Mcshane, M.A. Glinow, Organisational Behavior, 2nd edn. (McGraw hill, New York, 2009)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    R.W. Griffin, G. Moorhead, Organisational Behavior, 12th edn. (South Western Cengage Learning, Mason, 2014)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    C.R. McConell, Macroeconomics, 19th edn. (McGraw Hill, New York, 2012)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    S. Dalati, L. Koulo, MATRE research study on Academics at Higher Education in Syria (Arab International University/TEMPUS, Damascus, 2014), pp. 14–15Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Management Department, Faculty of Business AdministrationArab International UniversityDamascusSyria

Personalised recommendations