Advertisement

Energy Privatization and Land Grabbing: The Scope and Contradictions of the Mexican Neoliberal Oil Mega-initiative

  • James M. Cypher
Chapter
  • 221 Downloads
Part of the Environmental Politics and Theory book series (EPT)

Abstract

The recent reforms to open Mexico’s energy sector to private and foreign investment are considered by Cypher to be the most radical change to the Mexican economy since the approval of NAFTA. In an historically contextualized analysis of these reforms, he argues that the selling off of publicly owned hydrocarbon reserves is being carried out in such a way as to privilege their transfer to the Mexican oligarchy. At the same time, Cypher observes that strategic alliances with transnational petroleum firms are promoted in order to gain access to the technology that these firms control for exploiting non-conventional oil and gas reserves. The whole process, he theorizes, can be seen as a sort of “institutionalized bonanzaism” which gives continuity to a historically entrenched culture of plunder and a rentier ethos stemming back to the Conquest. He points to new conflicts emerging around the construction of oil and gas infrastructure in different parts of the country and predicts that they will intensify and multiply as private investment begins to flow into infrastructural development and to increase the overall rate of extraction.

References

  1. Arocena, Rodrigo and Judith Sutz (2001). “Desigualdad, tecnología e innovación en el desarrollo latinoamericano.” Iberoamericana 1 (1), pp. 29–49.Google Scholar
  2. Banamex (n.d.). Mexico Statistical Data: 1970–1980. Mexico City: Offset Setenta S.A. Google Scholar
  3. Barbosa Cano, Fabio (2011). Agotamiento de los campos petroleros gigantes y nuevo potentical de hidrocarburos en México. Mexico City: UNAM, Instituto de Investigaciones Económicas.Google Scholar
  4. Barker, Terry and Vladimir Brailovsky (1983). “La política económica entre 1976 y 1982.” Investigación Económica 166 (October–December), pp. 273–317.Google Scholar
  5. Barrow, Clyde (2008). “Ralph Miliband and the Instrumentalist Theory of the State.” In Paul Wetherly, Clyde Barrow, and Peter Burnham (eds.), Class, Power and the State in Capitalist Societies. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 84–108.Google Scholar
  6. Boman, Karen (2015). “Mexico’s Onshore Oil, Gas Bidding Round a Success.” Rigzone. Available at: http://www.rigzone.com/news/oil_gas/a/142142/Mexicos_Onshore_Oil_Gas_Bidding_Round_a_Success.
  7. Bonilla, Arturo (1984). “La política económica actual.” In Arturo Bonilla, Fernando Carmona and María Eugenia Correa (eds.), La política del estado mexicano. Mexico City: UNAM, Instituto de Investigaciones Económicas, pp. 1–31.Google Scholar
  8. Cárdenas, Chuautémoc (2013). “Rechazo a la reforma energética.” La Jornada, December 14, p. 4.Google Scholar
  9. Carmangani, Marcelo (1976). Formación y Crisis de un Sistema Feudal. Mexico City: Siglo XXI.Google Scholar
  10. Centro de Estudios para el Cambio del Campo en México (2014). Sembrando el Viento: Reformas Energéticas. Available at: www.ceccam.org.
  11. Clarke Murray, Cathryn, Selina Agbayani and Natalie Banc (2015). “Cumulative Effects of Planned Industrial Development and Climate Change on Marine Ecosystems.” Global Ecology and Conservation 4, pp. 110–116.Google Scholar
  12. CNH—Comisión Nacional de Hidrocarburos (2010). Factores de Recuperación de Aceite y Gas en México. Mexico City: SENER.Google Scholar
  13. Cypher, James (1992). Estado y Capital en México. Mexico City: Siglo XXI.Google Scholar
  14. ——— (1993). “The Ideology of Economic Science in the Selling of NAFTA: The Political Economy of Elite Decision-Making.” Review of Radical Political Economics 25 (4), pp. 146–163.Google Scholar
  15. ——— (2001). “Developing Disarticulation Within the Mexican Economy.” Latin American Perspectives 28 (3), pp. 11–37.Google Scholar
  16. ——— (2014). “El robo del siglo a plena luz del día.” Observatorio del Desarrollo 3 (9), pp. 5–10.Google Scholar
  17. Cypher, James and Raúl Delgado Wise (2012). México a la Deriva. Génesis, desempeño y crisis del modelo exportador de fuerza de trabajo. Zacatecas and Mexico City: Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas/Miguel Ángel Porrúa.Google Scholar
  18. David, Paul and Gavin Wright (1997). “Increasing Returns and the Genesis of American Resource Abundance.” Industrial and Corporate Change 6 (2), pp. 203–245.Google Scholar
  19. Dávila Jiménez, Gerardo (1982). “La política de precios y subsidies.” In Héctor González M. (ed.), El Sistema económica mexicano. Mexico City: La Red Jonas, pp. 228–249.Google Scholar
  20. Dealy, Glen (1992). The Latin Americans. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  21. El Economista (2015). “Emiten fallo de campos adjudicados en licitación de Ronda 1.3.” El Economista, December 12. Available at: http://eleconomista.com.mx/industrias/2015/12/17/emiten-fallo-campos-adjudicados-licitacion-ronda-13.
  22. El Informador (2015). “Rarámuris frenan gasoducto en Chihuahua.” Informador, January 24. Available at: http://www.informador.com.mx/mexico/2015/572408/6/raramuris-frenan-gasoducto-en-chihuahua.htm.
  23. Escamilla Haro, Omar (2015). Análisis de la estructura de negocios en la industria de hidrocarburos de México. Mexico City: Poder. Available at: http://projectpoder.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/PODER-An%C3%A1lisis-de-la-Estructura-de-Negocios-en-la-Industria-de-Hidrocarburos-de-Mexico-junio-2015.pdf.
  24. Gavin, Michael (1996). The Mexican Oil Boom: 1977–1985. Working Papers Series 314. Washington, DC: Inter-American Development Bank.Google Scholar
  25. Glade, William (1969). The Latin American Economies: A Study of their Institutional Evolution. London: D. Van Nostrand Company.Google Scholar
  26. González Amador, Roberto (2015). “Hillary Clinton, coautora de la reforma energética de Peña.” La Jornada, August 10, p. 2.Google Scholar
  27. Harrison, Lawrence (1997). The Pan-American Dream. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  28. IMF—International Monetary Fund (2015). “Table 1a. Indices of Primary Commodity Prices, 2005–2015.” Available at: http://www.imf.org/external/np/res/commod/Table1a.pdf.
  29. INEGI—Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía (2015). “Sector energético.” Estadísticas Históricas de México 2014. Mexico City: INEGI. Available at: http://internet.contenidos.inegi.org.mx/contenidos/productos/prod_serv/contenidos/espanol/bvinegi/productos/nueva_estruc/HyM2014/11.%20Sector_energetico.pdf.
  30. Jiménez, Juan (2015). Desigualdad, concentración del ingreso y tributación sobre las altas rentas en América Latina. Santiago, Chile: CEPAL.Google Scholar
  31. Keene, Benjamin and Keith Hayes (2009). A History of Latin America, vol. 1. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.Google Scholar
  32. La Redacción (2015). “Consorcio ligado a Salinas y Grupo Higa, ganador de campos petroleros.” Proceso.com, July 15. Available at: http://www.proceso.com.mx/?p=410747.
  33. Leonard, Irving (2003). “Science, Technology, and Hispanic America.” In Howard Wiarda and Margaret Mott (eds.), Politics and Social Change in Latin America. 4th edition. Westport, CT: Praeger, pp. 79–90.Google Scholar
  34. Márquez Ayala, David (2015). “Censos Económicos 2014 (2/2).” La Jornada, August 10, p. 31.Google Scholar
  35. Molina, Daniel (1989). “Pemex: la reprivatización de facto.” El Cotidiano 32, pp. 27–34.Google Scholar
  36. Moreno-Brid, Juan Carlos and Jaime Ros (2009). Development and Growth in the Mexican Economy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  37. Muggeridge, Ann, Andrew Cockin, KevinWebb, Harry Frampton, Ian Collins, Tim Moulds and Peter Salino (2014). “Recovery Rates, Enhanced Oil Recovery and Technological Limits.” Philosphical Transactions of the Royal Society 372, pp. 1–25.Google Scholar
  38. Notimex (2015). “Prevén inversiones de 44 mil mdd por cuarta licitación de ronda uno.” La Jornada, December 18, p. 29. Available at: http://www.jornada.unam.mx/2015/12/18/economia/029n3eco.
  39. Ocampo Téllez, Edgar (2013). “Pazflor, una ciudad flotante sobre aguas profundas.” Energía a Debate 58, pp. 52–58.Google Scholar
  40. ——— (2014). “¿Se revertirá el declive de la producción petrolera por decreto?” Energía a Debate 63, pp. 32–35.Google Scholar
  41. ——— (2015). “La dura realidad petrolera, más allá de la Ronda Uno.” Energía a Debate 70, pp. 8–13.Google Scholar
  42. Peck, Jaime (2012). Constructions of Neoliberal Reason. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Pineda, Guillermo and Javier Zenteno (2015). “Ocupación superficial: retos y principales implicaciones.” Energía a Debate 70, pp. 14–16.Google Scholar
  44. Presidencia de la República (2014). Programa Nacional de Infraestructura: 2014 –2018. Mexico City: Gobierno de México. Available at: http://www.presidencia.gob.mx/pni/.
  45. Puga, Cristina (2004). Los empresarios organizados y el Tratado de Libre Comerico de América del Norte. Mexico City: Miguel Ángel Porrúa.Google Scholar
  46. Ramos, Gustavo (2015). “Ordenan suspender obras de gasoducto en favor de rarámuris.” Elpueblo.com, October 4. Available at: http://elpueblo.com/notas/Ordenan-suspender-obras-de-gasoducto-en-f.
  47. Rangel, Carlos (1997). The Latin Americans. Piscataway, NJ: Transaction Books.Google Scholar
  48. Razones (1982). “Qué pasa en estes seis años?” Razónes 69 (August 23–September 5), pp. 14–17.Google Scholar
  49. Ribando Seelke, Clare, Michael Ratner, M. Angeles Villarreal and Phillip Brown (2015). Mexico’s Oil and Gas Sector: Background, Reform Efforts, and Implications for the United States. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service.Google Scholar
  50. Ross, Michael (2012). The Oil Curse. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  51. Ruttan, Vernon (1997). “Induced Innovation, Evolutionary Theory and Path Dependence: Sources of Technical Change.” The Economic Journal 107 (444), pp. 1520–1529.Google Scholar
  52. Sasakia, Takehiro, Takuya Furukawab, Yuichi Iwasakic, Mayumi Seto and Akira Morib (2015). “Perspectives for Ecosystem Management Based on Ecosystem Resilience and Ecological Thresholds Against Multiple and Stochastic Disturbances.” Ecological Indicators 57, pp. 395–408.Google Scholar
  53. Scheffer, Marten, Steve Carpenter, Jonathan A. Foley, Carl Folke and Brian Walkerk. (2001). “Catastrophic Shifts in Ecosystems.” Nature 413, pp. 591–596.Google Scholar
  54. Schwardt, Henning (2013). Institutions, Technology, and Circular and Cumulative Causation in Economics. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  55. Simpkins, Jason (2013). “Hugo Chavez is Dead, But His Legacy of Inefficiency Will Live On.” Oil & Energy Daily, March 7. Available at: http://www.oilandenergydaily.com/2013/03/07/hugo-chavez-pdvsa/.
  56. Teichman, Judith (1995). Privatization and Political Change in Mexico. Pittsburg: Pittsburg University Press.Google Scholar
  57. Tetreault, Darcy (2016). “Free Market Mining in Mexico.” Critical Sociology 42 (4–5), pp. 643–659.Google Scholar
  58. Toledo, Víctor Manuel (2014). “México resiste: ¡la defensa de los territorios ha comenzado!” La Jornada, August 19, p. 18.Google Scholar
  59. Veblen, Thorstein (1941 [1914]). The Instinct of Workmanship and the State of the Industrial Arts. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.Google Scholar
  60. ——— (1942 [1915]). Imperial Germany and the Industrial Revolution. New York: The Viking Press.Google Scholar
  61. Wiarda, Howard (2001). The Soul of Latin America. New Haven, CN: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  62. Williams, Adam (2014). “Surprise Mexican Energy Reform Winner Is Copper Miner.” Bloomberg News, January 9. Available at: http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2014-01-09/surprise-mexican-energy-reform-winner-is-copper-miner.html.
  63. Wright, Gavin and Jesse Czelusta (2004). “The Myth of the Resource Curse.” Challenge 47 (2), pp. 6–38.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • James M. Cypher
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Development StudiesAutonomous University of ZacatecasZacatecasMexico

Personalised recommendations