Current Insights in Human Factors of Automated Driving and Future Outlook Towards Tele-Operated Remote Driving Services

  • Christopher D. D. CabrallEmail author
  • Alexander Eriksson
  • Zhenji Lu
  • Sebastiaan M. Petermeijer
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 722)


Across the automotive industry, manufacturers have recently released various Partial Automation systems (SAE Level 2) which allow simultaneous/combined execution of both lateral and longitudinal vehicle control at the same time, yet still require active human supervision/engagement. Current reactive trends will be reviewed across major automotive players regarding differences in terminology, HMI input/outputs, and escalation intervals. Scholarly research is also reviewed pertaining to proactive strategies for driver engagement. Additionally, human factors research and findings will be presented regarding recommendations for situation awareness, human machine interfaces, TOR, as well as shared control concepts. The tutorial will conclude with discussion and brainstorming around outlook toward tele-operated remote driving services (Tele-Driving); what they have to offer beyond assisted/automated driving, autonomous vehicles, and ride-hailing/car-sharing paradigms; as well as the design/conduct of human factors research regarding Tele-Driving.


Human factors Automated driving Autonomous vehicles Self-driving cars Situation awareness Take over request Human machine interface Tele-operated driving 



The research presented in this tutorial was supported by the project HFAuto – Human Factors of Automated Driving (PITN-GA-2013-605817).

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christopher D. D. Cabrall
    • 1
    Email author
  • Alexander Eriksson
    • 2
  • Zhenji Lu
    • 1
  • Sebastiaan M. Petermeijer
    • 1
  1. 1.Delft University of TechnologyDelftThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Swedish National Road and Transport Research InstituteGothenburgSweden

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