The Tower of London
The Tower of London (TL) was invented in 1982 by Shallice  and has received an astonishing attention in the psychology of problem solving and in neuropsychology. Just for an illustration, we point out that in the paper , which sets up the mathematical framework for the TL, no less than 79 references are listed! The success of the TL is due to the fact that on one hand it is an easy-to-observe psychological test tool, while on the other hand it can be applied in different situations and for numerous clinical goals. It is hence not surprising that several additional variations of the TL were proposed to which we will turn in Section 7.2. Here we only mention the Tower of Oxford introduced by G. Ward and A. Allport in  and named in [208, p. 2936], but which is mathematically the same puzzle as the TH without the divine rule or either the Bottleneck TH with maximal discrepancy.
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