Outcome after Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

  • C. J. R. Gough
  • J. P. Nolan
Part of the Annual Update in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine book series (AUICEM)


Cardiac arrest is an absolute medical emergency. Unless effective cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is commenced within minutes, death or permanent brain injury will follow. Almost all critical care clinicians will treat cardiac arrest patients. This chapter summarizes the incidence, trends, and short‐ and long‐term survival from both out‐of‐hospital (OHCA) and in‐hospital (IHCA) cardiac arrest.

Out‐of‐Hospital Cardiac Arrest


The incidence of emergency medical services (EMS)‐treated OHCA varies significantly around the world (Table  1). A large review of 67 prospective studies, of over 100 million patients, identified wide variation in incidence of cardiac arrest across the globe, but the overall incidence for adults was 62 cases per 100,000 person‐years, with the highest rates in North America (71 per 100,000 person‐years) and the lowest rates in Asia (50 per 100,000 person‐years) [ 1]. Roughly three quarters of cardiac arrests had a cardiac cause.
Table 1



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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care MedicineRoyal United HospitalBathUK
  2. 2.School of Clinical SciencesUniversity of BristolBristolUK

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