Alternative Multifunctional Additives for Biodiesel Stabilization: Perspectives for More Efficiency and More Cost-Effectiveness

  • Ana Carolina Roveda
  • Magno Aparecido Gonçalves TrindadeEmail author
Part of the Green Energy and Technology book series (GREEN)


In this chapter, we address the current technologies to cover the alternative blends composed by multifunctional antioxidants—sometimes called secondary antioxidants—used to overcome the problems of degradation and provide more stability to the biodiesel which is derived from different raw materials. To this end, some valuable works with notable studies of conventional antioxidants, and sometimes synergetic binary/ternary blends and their applications, were briefly reviewed. However, the chapter attempts to cover only an overview of the recent advances in the field of multifunctional alternative additives, which provide a more efficient stabilization of the biodiesel. Also, its activities allow lowering the concentration of additives into biodiesel while maintaining their required specification. Furthermore, the chapter brings some aspects of the chemistry behind the multifunctional activities, focusing on the key benefits that afford in their multifunctional properties. Lastly, considering the vast scale in which the biofuel can be processed, we also show that the target additives improve the performance of conventional antioxidants more cost-effectively.


  1. Abbaszaadeh A, Ghobadian B, Omidkhah MR, Najafi G (2012) Current biodiesel production technologies: a comparative review. Energy Convers Manag 63:138–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adegoke GO, Vijay Kumar M, Gopala Krishna AG et al (1998) Antioxidants and lipid oxidation in foods: a critical appraisal. J Food Sci Technol 35:283–298Google Scholar
  3. Agarwal AK, Khurana D (2013) Long-term storage oxidation stability of Karanja biodiesel with the use of antioxidants. Fuel Process Technol 106:447–452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Banga S, Varshney PK (2010) Effect of impurities on performance of biodiesel: a reviewGoogle Scholar
  5. Barclay LRC, Vinqvist MR (2003) Phenols as Antioxidants. In: The chemistry of phenols, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, pp 839–908Google Scholar
  6. Canakci M, Sanli H (2008) Biodiesel production from various feedstocks and their effects on the fuel properties. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 35:431–441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chahine MH, Macneill RF (1974) Effect of stabilization of crude whale oil with tertiary butylhydroquinone and other antioxidants upon keeping quality of resultant deodorized oil. A feasibility study. J Am Oil Chem Soc 51:37–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Choe E, Min DB (2009) Mechanisms of antioxidants in the oxidation of foods. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 8:345–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Comin M, de Souza ACD, Roveda AC et al (2017) Alternatives binary and ternary blends and its effects on stability of soybean biodiesel contaminated with metals. Fuel 191:275–282. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cosgrove JP, Church DF, Pryor WA (1987) The kinetics of the autoxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Lipids 22:299–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. da Silva WLG, Salomão AA, Vila MMDC, Tubino M (2017) Influence of water and ultraviolet irradiation on the induction period of the oxidation of biodiesel. J Braz Chem Soc 28:676–680Google Scholar
  12. Damasceno SS, Santos NA, Santos IMG et al (2013) Caffeic and ferulic acids: an investigation of the effect of antioxidants on the stability of soybean biodiesel during storage. Fuel 107:641–646. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. De Sousa LS, De Moura CVR, De Oliveira JE, De Moura EM (2014) Use of natural antioxidants in soybean biodiesel. Fuel 134:420–428. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. de Souza ACD, Comin M, de Oliveira LH et al (2017) Application of solvent dye in the field of biodiesel preservation. Color Technol 133:165–169. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Decker EA, Elias RJ, McClements DJ (2010) Oxidation in foods and beverages and antioxidant applications: management in different industry sectors, ElsevierGoogle Scholar
  16. Deyab MA (2016) Corrosion inhibition of aluminum in biodiesel by ethanol extracts of Rosemary leaves. J Taiwan Inst Chem Eng 58:536–541CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Diana da Silva Araújo F, Araújo IC, Costa ICG, et al (2014) Study of degumming process and evaluation of oxidative stability of methyl and ethyl biodiesel of Jatropha curcas L. oil from three different Brazilian states. Renew Energy.
  18. Dwivedi G, Sharma MP (2015) Effect of metal on stability and cold flow property of pongamia biodiesel. Mater Today Proc 2:1421–1426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Embuscado ME (2015) Herbs and spices as antioxidants for food preservation. Handb Antioxid Food Preserv 251–283Google Scholar
  20. Fattah IMR, Masjuki HH, Kalam MA et al (2014) Effect of antioxidants on oxidation stability of biodiesel derived from vegetable and animal based feedstocks. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 30:356–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fiege H, Voges H, Hamamoto T et al (2000) Phenol derivativesGoogle Scholar
  22. Grajzer M, Prescha A, Korzonek K et al (2015) Characteristics of rose hip (Rosa canina L.) cold-pressed oil and its oxidative stability studied by the differential scanning calorimetry method. Food Chem 188:459–466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Haas MJ, McAloon AJ, Yee WC, Foglia TA (2006) A process model to estimate biodiesel production costs. Bioresour Technol 97:671–678. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Håkansson B, Jägerstad M (1990) The effect of thermal inactivation of lipoxygenase on the stability of vitamin E in wheat. J Cereal Sci 12:177–185. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hraš AR, Hadolin M, Knez Ž, Bauman D (2000) Comparison of antioxidative and synergistic effects of rosemary extract with α-tocopherol, ascorbyl palmitate and citric acid in sunflower oil. Food Chem 71:229–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Jain S, Sharma MP (2012) Application of thermogravimetric analysis for thermal stability of Jatropha curcas biodiesel. Fuel 93:252–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Jakeria MR, Fazal MA, Haseeb A (2014) Influence of different factors on the stability of biodiesel: a review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 30:154–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kivevele T, Huan Z (2015) Influence of metal contaminants and antioxidant additives on storage stability of biodiesel produced from non-edible oils of Eastern Africa origin (Croton megalocarpus and Moringa oleifera oils). Fuel 158:530–537CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Knothe G (2005) Dependence of biodiesel fuel properties on the structure of fatty acid alkyl esters. Fuel Process Technol 86:1059–1070CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Knothe G (2007) Some aspects of biodiesel oxidative stability. Fuel Process Technol 88:669–677CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Knothe G, Razon LF (2017) Biodiesel fuels. Prog Energy Combust Sci 58:36–59. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kreivaitis R, Gumbyte M, Kazancev K et al (2013) A comparison of pure and natural antioxidant modified rapeseed oil storage properties. Ind Crops Prod 43:511–516. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Lamba BY, Joshi G, Tiwari AK et al (2013) Effect of antioxidants on physico-chemical properties of EURO-III HSD (high speed diesel) and Jatropha biodiesel blends. Energy 60:222–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lapuerta M, Rodríguez-Fernández J, Ramos Á, Álvarez B (2012) Effect of the test temperature and anti-oxidant addition on the oxidation stability of commercial biodiesel fuels. Fuel 93:391–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Lima RP, da Luz PTS, Braga M et al (2017) Murumuru (Astrocaryum murumuru Mart.) butter and oils of buriti (Mauritia flexuosa Mart.) and pracaxi (Pentaclethra macroloba (Willd.) Kuntze) can be used for biodiesel production: Physico-chemical properties and thermal and kinetic studies. Ind Crops Prod 97:536–544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Liu G (2015) Development of low-temperature properties on biodiesel fuel: a review. Int J Energy Res 39:1295–1310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Mahmudul HM, Hagos FY, Mamat R et al (2017) Production, characterization and performance of biodiesel as an alternative fuel in diesel engines–A review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 72:497–509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Maia ECR, Borsato D, Moreira I et al (2011) Study of the biodiesel B100 oxidative stability in mixture with antioxidants. Fuel Process Technol 92:1750–1755CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Marinova E, Toneva A, Yanishlieva N (2008) Synergistic antioxidant effect of α-tocopherol and myricetin on the autoxidation of triacylglycerols of sunflower oil. Food Chem 106:628–633CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Medeiros ML, Cordeiro AMMT, Queiroz N et al (2014) Efficient antioxidant formulations for use in biodiesel. Energy Fuels 28:1074–1080CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Min DB, Smouse TH (1985) Flavor chemistry of fats and oils. The American oil chemists societyGoogle Scholar
  42. Mittelbach M, Schober S (2003) The influence of antioxidants on the oxidation stability of biodiesel. J Am Oil Chem Soc 80:817–823CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Moser BR (2008) Efficacy of myricetin as an antioxidant in methyl esters of soybean oil. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 110:1167–1174. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Moser BR (2012) Efficacy of gossypol as an antioxidant additive in biodiesel. Renew Energy 40:65–70. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Niki E, Saito T, Kawakami A, Kamiya Y (1984) Inhibition of oxidation of methyl linoleate in solution by vitamin E and vitamin C. J Biol Chem 259:4177–4182Google Scholar
  46. Nivetha S, Roy DV (2013) Effect of natural and synthetic antioxidants on oxidative stability of FAMEs obtained from hevea brasiliensis. J Energy Chem 22:935–941. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Omura K (1995) Antioxidant synergism between butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene. J Am Oil Chem Soc 72:1565–1570CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Orives JR, Galvan D, Pereira JL et al (2014) Experimental design applied for cost and efficiency of antioxidants in biodiesel. J Am Oil Chem Soc 91:1805–1811CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Othman MF, Adam A, Najafi G, Mamat R (2017) Green fuel as alternative fuel for diesel engine: a review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 80:694–709CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Pantoja SS, da Conceição LRV, da Costa CEF et al (2013) Oxidative stability of biodiesels produced from vegetable oils having different degrees of unsaturation. Energy Convers Manag 74:293–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Pisoschi AM, Pop A (2015) The role of antioxidants in the chemistry of oxidative stress: a review. Eur J Med Chem 97:55–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Pokorny J, Yanishlieva N, Gordon MH (2001) Antioxidants in food: practical applications. CRC pressGoogle Scholar
  53. Pullen J, Saeed K (2012) An overview of biodiesel oxidation stability. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 16:5924–5950CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Pullen J, Saeed K (2014) Experimental study of the factors affecting the oxidation stability of biodiesel FAME fuels. Fuel Process Technol 125:223–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Rasimoglu N, Temur H (2014) Cold flow properties of biodiesel obtained from corn oil. Energy 68:57–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Rawat DS, Joshi G, Lamba BY et al (2015) The effect of binary antioxidant proportions on antioxidant synergy and oxidation stability of Jatropha and Karanja biodiesels. Energy 84:643–655CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Richard-Forget F, Gauillard F, Hugues M et al (1995) Inhibition of horse bean and germinated barley lipoxygenases by some phenolic compounds. J Food Sci 60:1325–1329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Romanini DC, Trindade MAG, Zanoni MVB (2009) A simple electroanalytical method for the analysis of the dye solvent orange 7 in fuel ethanol. Fuel. Google Scholar
  59. Roveda AC, Comin M, Caires ARL et al (2016) Thermal stability enhancement of biodiesel induced by a synergistic effect between conventional antioxidants and an alternative additive. Energy 109:260–265. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Roveda AC, Tenório KV, Caires ARL et al (2017) Alternative binary blends and their synergistic effect on stability of soybean biodiesel. Clean Technol Environ Policy. Google Scholar
  61. Rudnick LR (2013) Synthetics, mineral oils, and bio-based lubricants: chemistry and technology. CRC pressGoogle Scholar
  62. Sarin A, Arora R, Singh NP et al (2009) Influence of metal contaminants on oxidation stability of Jatropha biodiesel. Energy 34:1271–1275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Sarin A, Arora R, Singh NP et al (2010a) Effect of metal contaminants and antioxidants on the oxidation stability of the methyl ester of Pongamia. J Am Oil Chem Soc 87:567–572CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Sarin A, Arora R, Singh NP et al (2010b) Synergistic effect of metal deactivator and antioxidant on oxidation stability of metal contaminated Jatropha biodiesel. Energy 35:2333–2337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Serqueira DS, Dornellas RM, Silva LG et al (2015) Tetrahydrocurcuminoids as potential antioxidants for biodiesels. Fuel 160:490–494. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Serrano M, Bouaid A, Martínez M, Aracil J (2013) Oxidation stability of biodiesel from different feedstocks: influence of commercial additives and purification step. Fuel 113:50–58. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Smyk B (2015) Singlet oxygen autoxidation of vegetable oils: Evidences for lack of synergy between β-carotene and tocopherols. Food Chem 182:209–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Spacino KR, da Silva ET, Angilelli KG et al (2016) Relative protection factor optimisation of natural antioxidants in biodiesel B100. Ind Crops Prod 80:109–114. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Sulistyo H, Almeida MF, Dias JM (2015) Influence of synthetic antioxidants on the oxidation stability of biodiesel produced from acid raw Jatropha curcas oil. Fuel Process Technol 132:133–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Trindade MAG, Zanoni MVB (2009) Voltammetric sensing of the fuel dye marker Solvent Blue 14 by screen-printed electrodes. Sensors Actuators B Chem 138:257–263. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Trindade MAG, Ferreira VS, Zanoni MVB (2007) A square-wave voltammetric method for analysing the colour marker quinizarine in petrol and diesel fuels. Dye Pigment. Google Scholar
  72. Trindade MAG, Zanoni MVB, Matysik F-M (2010) Sensitive determination of water insoluble dyes used as marking of commercial petroleum products using high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Electroanalysis. Google Scholar
  73. Trindade MAG, Stradiotto NR, Zanoni MVB (2011) Corantes marcadores de combustíveis: legislação e métodos analíticos para detecção. Química Nov 34:1683–1691CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Trindade MAG, Romanini DC, Zanoni MVB (2012) Determination of Sudan II dye in ethanol fuel by chromatographic and electroanalytical methodsGoogle Scholar
  75. Trindade MAG, Bilibio U, Zanoni MVB (2014) Enhancement of voltammetric determination of quinizarine based on the adsorption at surfactant-adsorbed-layer in disposable electrodes. Fuel 136:201–207. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Varatharajan K, Pushparani DS (2017) Screening of antioxidant additives for biodiesel fuels. Renew Sustain Energy Rev. Google Scholar
  77. Yehye WA, Rahman NA, Ariffin A et al (2015) Understanding the chemistry behind the antioxidant activities of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT): a review. Eur J Med Chem 101:295–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ana Carolina Roveda
    • 1
  • Magno Aparecido Gonçalves Trindade
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Faculty of Exact Sciences and TechnologyFederal University of Grande DouradosDouradosBrazil

Personalised recommendations