Typical Mistakes in MDS

  • Ingwer Borg
  • Patrick J. F. Groenen
  • Patrick Mair
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Statistics book series (BRIEFSSTATIST)


Various mistakes that users tend to make when using MDS are discussed, from using MDS for the wrong type of data, using MDS programs with suboptimal specifications, to misinterpreting MDS solutions.


Global optimum Local optimum Termination criterion Initial configuration Degenerate solution Dimensional interpretation Regional interpretation Procrustean transformation 


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ingwer Borg
    • 1
  • Patrick J. F. Groenen
    • 2
  • Patrick Mair
    • 3
  1. 1.Westfälische Wilhelms-UniversitätMuensterGermany
  2. 2.Econometric InstituteErasmus University RotterdamRotterdamThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyHarvard UniversityCambridgeUSA

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