Confirmatory MDS

  • Ingwer Borg
  • Patrick J. F. Groenen
  • Patrick Mair
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Statistics book series (BRIEFSSTATIST)


Different forms of confirmatory MDS are introduced, from weak forms with external starting configurations to enforcing theoretical constraints onto the MDS point coordinates or onto certain regions of the MDS space.


Confirmatory MDS External scales Dimensional constraints Shearing Axial partition Penalty function 


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ingwer Borg
    • 1
  • Patrick J. F. Groenen
    • 2
  • Patrick Mair
    • 3
  1. 1.Westfälische Wilhelms-UniversitätMuensterGermany
  2. 2.Econometric InstituteErasmus University RotterdamRotterdamThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyHarvard UniversityCambridgeUSA

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