MDS Software

  • Ingwer Borg
  • Patrick J. F. Groenen
  • Patrick Mair
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Statistics book series (BRIEFSSTATIST)


Two modern programs for MDS are described: proxscal, an spss module, and smacof, an R package. Commands and/or GUI menus are presented and illustrated with practical applications.


proxscal prefscal smacof 


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  4. Venables, W. N., & Smith, D. N. (2002). An introduction to R. Bristol: Network Theory Ltd.Google Scholar
  5. Verzani, J. (2011). Getting started with RStudio: An integrated development environment for R. O’Reilly Media.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ingwer Borg
    • 1
  • Patrick J. F. Groenen
    • 2
  • Patrick Mair
    • 3
  1. 1.Westfälische Wilhelms-UniversitätMuensterGermany
  2. 2.Econometric InstituteErasmus University RotterdamRotterdamThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyHarvard UniversityCambridgeUSA

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