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Rehabilitation of Radioactively Contaminated Soil: Use of Bioremediation/Phytoremediation Techniques

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Abstract

The release of radionuclides in the environment is of major concern. Radionuclides arise mainly from nuclear power production, nuclear accidents, nuclear weapons testing, uranium mining and processing and nuclear waste disposal. Remediation of the affected areas is urgently needed, since the presence of these contaminants represents a major human and environmental health concern. Bioremediation and phytoremediation have been considered the eco-friendly alternative to the environmentally problematic remediation of contaminated soils, recovering functions that make some future uses possible. Available studies demonstrate that both methodologies, combined or not with other chemical or physically-based strategies (to mitigate the availability of radionuclides), have the potential to be used inexpensively and effectively in the restoration of contaminated environments. In addition, bioremediation and phytoremediation are environment friendly procedures, and are therefore more accepted by regulatory bodies. In this chapter, the main problems associated to each type of radioactively contaminated site will be identified and the most relevant bioremediation and phytoremediation techniques to deal with this type of contamination, will be reviewed. Furthermore, the advantages and disadvantages of using such techniques will also be discussed with a perspective of identifying knowledge gaps and highlighting new approaches to deal with this challenging issue. The reasons for the existence of few applications in real scenarios of contamination will also be analyzed.

Keywords

Bioremediation Phytoremediation Radionuclides Contamination Soil 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT), through National Funds (Ministry for Science and Education in Portugal), provided financial support to Joana Lourenço by means of a Post-Doc grant (SFRH/BPD/92554/2013). This work was also supported by the Strategic Funding UID/Multi/04423/2013 (CIIMAR) and UID/AMB/50017/2013 (CESAM) through national funds provided by FCT and European Regional Development Fund (ERDF), in the framework of the PT2020 Partnership Agreement.

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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biology & CESAMUniversity of AveiroAveiroPortugal
  2. 2.Department of Biology & GreenUPortoFaculty of Sciences of the University of PortoPortoPortugal

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