Management of Complications and Revisions of Sacral Neuromodulation

  • Ragheed M. Saoud
  • Adonis Hijaz


Despite the various treatment modalities available for patients with chronic lower urinary tract symptoms, sacral neuromodulation has proven to be a great minimally invasive option for those with refractory urinary retention, urgency incontinence, and overactive bladder symptoms. This procedure has undergone major changes since its inception in 1979, especially after the introduction of the tined lead. This chapter focuses on the complications of sacral neuromodulation and the different ways to troubleshoot them in order to improve therapeutic outcomes.


Sacral Neuromodulation Tined Lead Percutaneous nerve evaluation (PNE) InterStim Implantable Pulse Generator IPG 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Urology, Department of SurgeryAmerican University of Beirut Medical CenterBeirutLebanon
  2. 2.Center of Female Pelvic Medicine and Surgery, University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Urology InstituteClevelandUSA

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