Viscous Correction and Shock Reflection in Stunted Busemann Intakes

  • H. Ogawa
  • B. Shoesmith
  • S. Mölder
  • E. Timofeev
Conference paper


Air intakes play a crucial role in hypersonic air-breathing propulsion by compressing incoming airflow to high pressure and temperature for combustion. Axisymmetric Busemann intakes can achieve highly efficient compression for scramjet engines in inviscid flow. In practice, however, viscous effects exert significant influence on the flowfield and performance of scramjet intakes, necessitating effective methods for viscous correction and intake shortening. The present study develops a robust correction methodology by coupling viscous flow simulations with a wall correction method based on local displacement thickness of the boundary layer, whose edge is detected based on the total enthalpy profile. This iterative correction process is applied to hypersonic stunted Busemann intakes and supersonic M-flow ring geometries. Flow features in the initial inviscid fields are successfully reproduced in the presence of viscosity for both applications, except for highly stunted Busemann intakes, where the mode transition to Mach reflection occurs at different shortening lengths.



This study has been conducted in line with the General Collaborative Research Projects J14054 and J16090 and Multiple Collaborative Research Project J15R005 coordinated and funded by the Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University. The authors are grateful for their support, which inspired and enabled the present research. Hideaki Ogawa is thankful to the Australian Research Council for their financial support in the ARC DECRA (Discovery Early Career Research Awards) fellowship (DE120102277). Ben Shoesmith gratefully acknowledges the MEDA scholarship funded by the Faculty of Engineering, McGill University, and the FRQNT and NSERC funding agencies.


  1. 1.
    Carter, J.E.: A new boundary-layer interaction techniques for separated flows. NASA-TM-78690 (1978)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Flock, A.K., Gülhan, A.: Viscous effects and truncation effects in axisymmetric Busemann scramjet intakes. AIAA Paper 2015-0108 (2015)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Greene, F.A., Hamilton, H.H.: Development of a boundary layer properties interpolation tool in support of Orbiter return to flight. AIAA Paper 2006-2920 (2006)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mcnally, W.D.: BLAYER—Compressible laminar and turbulent boundary layers in arbitrary pressure gradients. Computer Program, LEW-11097, NASA Lewis Research Center (1994)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Metacomp Technologies Inc: CFD++. Software Package, Ver. 15.1 (2015)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Mölder, S.: Internal, axisymmetric, conical flow. AIAA J 5(7), 1252–1255 (1967)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Mölder, S., Romeskie, J.M.: Modular hypersonic inlets with conical flow. SP-30, Advisory Group for Aeronautical Research and Development, NATO (1968)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mölder, S., Szpiro, E.J.: Busemann inlet for hypersonic speeds. J. Spacecraft Rockets 3(8), 1303–1304 (1966)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ogawa, H., Mölder, S., Boyce, R.R.: Effects of leading-edge truncation and stunting on drag and efficiency of Busemann intakes for aisymmetric scramjet engines. JSME J. Fluid Sci. Technol. 8(2), 186–199 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ogawa, H., Mölder, S., Timofeev, E.V.: Numerical investigation of Mach reflection hysteresis in stunted Busemann intakes for axisymmetric scramjet engines. In: Proceedings of the 10th International Conf on Fluid Dynamics, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan, 25–27 Nov 2013 (2013)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Rylov, A.I.: On the impossibility of regular reflection of a steady-state shock wave from the axis of symmetry. Prikl Mat Mekh 54, 200–203 (1990)MathSciNetzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Shoesmith, B., Mölder, S., Timofeev, E., Ogawa, H.: Shock reflection in axisymmetric internal flows. In: Present ISIS22 Proceedings (2016)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Van Wie, D.M., Mölder, S.: Applications of Busemann inlet designs for flight at hypersonic speeds. AIAA Paper 92-1210 (1992)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Walsh, P.C., Tahir, R.B., Mölder, S.: Boundary-layer correction for the Busemann hypersonic air inlet. Can. Aeronaut. Space J. 49(1), 11–17 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. Ogawa
    • 1
  • B. Shoesmith
    • 2
  • S. Mölder
    • 3
  • E. Timofeev
    • 2
  1. 1.School of EngineeringRMIT UniversityMelbourneAustralia
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical EngineeringMcGill UniversityMontrealCanada
  3. 3.Department of Aerospace EngineeringRyerson UniversityTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations