Advertisement

The Flames of Louvain: Total War and the Destruction of European High Culture in Belgium by German Occupying Forces in August 1914

  • John P. Williams
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter identifies the motives of German occupying forces in destroying the culturally rich university town of Leuven/Louvain during the first weeks of the war. It discusses reactions to the sacking from “Beyond Flanders Fields” on the part not only of the Entente but also of German academics, politicians and the general public. In this sense it lays some of the foundations for Sebastian Bischoff’s account in Chap.  4 of German stereotypes of the Belgians.

References

  1. Bernstein, Eduard (ed.) (1915), Das Deutsche Weißbuch über den Ausbruch des deutsch-russisch-französischen Krieges 1914. Berlin: Vowärts.Google Scholar
  2. Chambry, René (1915), Die Wahrheit über Löwen. Lausanne: Payot.Google Scholar
  3. Derez, Mark (2014), The Burning of the Library of Leuven and the International Response, http://www.historikerdialog.eu/sites/historikerdialog.eu/files/content/files/Lecture%20Derez%20Leuven %207%20May%202013.pdf (accessed August 10, 2016).
  4. De Schaepdrijver, Sophie (2013), De Groote Oorlog : Het Koninkrijk België Tijdens de Eerste Wereldoorlog. Antwerpen: Houtekiet.Google Scholar
  5. De Schaepdrijver, Sophie (2014), The “German Atrocities” of 1914, http://www.bl.uk/world-war-one/articles/civilian-atrocities-german-1914 (accessed 5.5.2016).
  6. Duffy Michael (2009), Bryce Report into German Atrocities in Belgium, 12 May 1915, http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/brycereport.htm (accessed 5.5.2017).
  7. Fox, Major Frank (1915), The Agony of Belgium: The Invasion of Belgium in WW; August–December 1914. London: Hutchinson & Co.Google Scholar
  8. Gilbert, Martin (1994), The First World War: A Complete History. New York: Henry Holt and Company.Google Scholar
  9. Horne, John and Alan Kramer (2001), German Atrocities, 1914: A History of Denial. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Hull, Isabel (2005), Absolute Destruction: Military Culture and the Practices of War in Imperial Germany. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Keegan, John (1999), The First World War. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc.Google Scholar
  12. Kramer, Alan (2007), Dynamic of Destruction: Culture and Mass Killing in the First World War.New York: Oxford University Press, Inc.Google Scholar
  13. MacMillan, Margaret (2013), The War that Ended the Peace, The Road to 1914. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  14. Meyer, G.J. (2007), A World Undone: The Story of the Great War 1914–1918. New York:Bantam Dell.Google Scholar
  15. Mokveld, Lambertus (1916), De overweldiging van België : ervaringen, als Nederlandsch journalist opgedaan, tijdens een viermaandelijksch verblijf bij de Duitsche troepen in België, Rotterdam.Google Scholar
  16. Nick Milne (no date), The Rape of Belgium Revisited, http://ww1centenary.oucs.ox.ac.uk/memoryofwar/the-rape-of-belgium-revisited/.html (accessed April 30, 2017).
  17. Souttar, Henry Sessions (1915), A Surgeon in Belgium, London: Edward Arnold.Google Scholar
  18. Tollebeek, Jo and Eline van Assche. (2014), Ravaged: Art and Culture in Times of Conflict. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  19. Tuchman, Barbara W (1962), The Guns of August, New York: Ballantine Books.Google Scholar
  20. Von Ungern-Sternberg, Jürgen and, Wolfgang von Ungern-Sternberg (1996), Der Aufruf “An die Kulturwelt!”: das Manifest der 93 und die Anfänge der Kriegspropaganda im Ersten Weltkrieg : mit einer Dokumentation. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag.Google Scholar
  21. Waterfield, Bruno (2014), The City that turned Germans into “Huns”, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/belgium/11053962/The-city-that-turned-Germans-into-Huns-marks-100-years-since-it-was-set-ablaze.html (accessed September 13, 2016).
  22. Zuckerman, Larry (2004), The Rape of Belgium: The Untold Story of World War I. New York: NYU Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • John P. Williams
    • 1
  1. 1.Collin CollegePlanoUSA

Personalised recommendations