Challenges of Major Secular Ideologies
This chapter briefly discusses the major secular ideologies that developed in the wake of the scientific revolution and the Enlightenment: liberalism, socialism, feminism, nationalism, ecologism, and humanism. The main purpose is to look at and evaluate those secular ideologies from an evolutionary perspective and their significance for the development of evolutionary ethics. It is concluded that all of the major ideologies appear to include moral principles and practices that can be considered to be useful for evolution-based ethics. Albeit, they are only partial building stones for the design of a viable universal, evolutionarily grounded ethics in a further progressing modernisation. None of the secular ideologies have succeeded so far in elaborating a comprehensive worldview comparable to the major organised religious traditions. They excel as a result of their fragmented nature and, in most cases, short-term perspective.