Setting the Stage for Reflecting on a Universal Morality
Dealing with the ethical challenges of humankind at the turn of the twenty-first century, and safely guiding the human species through new subsequent stages of biological evolution and adaptation and cultural development, requires rethinking of our values and norms in a longer-term perspective and at the planetary level. Therefore, this chapter starts by discussing the meaning of evolution and presenting an overview of the major stages of the development of evolution science—the Darwinian revolution, the Modern Evolutionary Synthesis, the molecular-genetic revolution and the Second Darwinian Revolution. Next, the two major developmental processes, the hominisation process and the modernisation process, are addressed, which are considered by the authors to be of pivotal importance for the future of human morality. Finally, by confronting the hominisation and modernisation processes, this chapter sets the stage for revealing the necessary changes in values and norms in view of adapting to further progressing modernisation and evolving toward higher levels of hominisation.