The bio-power that arose and expanded in the nineteenth century and beyond often colluded with pronatalism, working against the interests of women for whom frequent pregnancies and many children were liabilities rather than assets. This epilogue, however, discusses the interaction of bio-power and anti-natalist ideologies to prevent sex workers and people with disabilities or diseases, such as leprosy, from having children. Fundamental to denying reproductive rights was classifying people into categories: some women’s reproduction was highly valued while others’ was not. It is not that the state ignored these marginal women. Rather, it attempted to control them by mandatory pelvic examinations for prostitutes and the institutionalization of people with particular illnesses. The state and medical professionals worked closely to control these populations.