Information Based Exploration with Panoramas and Angle Occupancy Grids
In this work we present a multi-robot information based exploration strategy with the goal of constructing high resolution 3D maps. We use a Cauchy–Schwarz Quadratic Mutual Information (CSQMI) based objective which operates on a novel angle enhanced occupancy grid to guide robots in the collection of RGBD panoramas, which have been shown to provide memory efficient high quality representations of space. To intelligently collect panoramas, we introduce the angle enhanced occupancy grid which emphasizes perspective in addition to coverage, a characteristic we believe results in the construction of higher quality maps than traditional occupancy grid methods. To show this, we conduct simulations and compare our approach with frontier exploration. Using our angle enhanced occupancy grid, only 11.4% of decimeter wall segments were covered by fewer than 20 pixels as compared with 33.5% for the frontier method.
The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of ARL grant W911NF-08-2-0004 and NSF grant OISE-1131011.
- 1.Charrow, B., Liu, S., Kumar, V., Michael, N.: Information-theoretic mapping using Cauchy–Schwarz quadratic mutual information. In: 2015 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA) pp. 4791–4798 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1109/ICRA.2015.7139865
- 2.Cover, T.M., Thomas, J.A.: Elements of Information Theory (2005). https://doi.org/10.1002/047174882X
- 3.Cowley, A., Taylor, C.J., Southall, B.: Rapid multi-robot exploration with topometric maps. In: Proceedings-IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation pp. 1044–1049 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1109/ICRA.2011.5980403
- 7.Newcombe, R.A., Izadi, S., Hilliges, O., Molyneaux, D., Kim, D., Davison, A.J., Kohli, P., Shotton, J., Hodges, S., Fitzgibbon, A.: KinectFusion: Real-time dense surface mapping and tracking. In: 10th IEEE International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality, ISMAR 2011 (July 2016), pp. 127–136 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1109/ISMAR.2011.6092378
- 9.Taylor, C.J., Cowley, A., Kettler, R., Ninomiya, K., Gupta, M., Niu, B.: Mapping with depth panoramas. In: 2015 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS 2015), pp. 6265–6272 (2015)Google Scholar
- 10.Thrun, S., Burgard, W., Fox, D.: Probabilistic robotics. MIT press, USA (2005)Google Scholar
- 11.Whelan, T., Kaess, M., Fallon, M., Johannsson, H., Leonard, J., McDonald, J.: Kintinuous: Spatially extended kinectfusion (2012)Google Scholar
- 12.Yamauchi, B.: Frontier-based exploration using multiple robots. In: Proceedings of the Second International Conference On Autonomous Agents, pp. 47–53. ACM (1998)Google Scholar