Acute Pancreatitis

  • Goran Augustin


Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a rare entity in pregnancy, mainly caused by hyperlipidemia or gallbladder disorders, in which symptoms of cholelithiasis and biliary sludge in many cases precede the symptoms and clinical picture of AP. Diagnosis is based on clinical presentation, laboratory investigations, and modern imaging methods such as abdominal magnetic resonance imaging or magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography. General management of mild AP in pregnancy is conservative and supportive, while severe AP deserves hospitalization in intensive care unit and endoscopic or surgical interventions. Biliary AP can be resolved with urgent ERCP sphincterotomy followed by laparoscopic cholecystectomy preferably in the second trimester when technical conditions are optimal and risk for the fetus and pregnant woman minimal. Hyperlipidemic AP is treated with lipid-lowering methods, sometimes even with a therapeutic delivery. One of the most common types, biliary AP, is associated with better outcomes than non-biliary causes.


  1. 1.
    Schmitt W. Sammlung zweifelhafter Schangerschaft faille nebst eines kritischen Einleitung über die Methode des Untersuchens, zum Gebrauche für angehende Geburtshelfer. Wien: Wimmer; 1818. p. 172–80.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lawrence W. History of a case in which on examination after death the pancreas was found in a state of active inflammation. Tr Med Chir Soc L. 1831;16:367–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Marcus M. Akute Pankreaserkrankungen und Gestationsvorgänge. Bruns. Beitr Klin Chir. 1930;149:129.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Langmade CF, Edmondson H. Acute pancreatitis during pregnancy and postpartum period; a report of nine cases. Surg Gynecol Obstet. 1951;92:43–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Burger P. Sudden death during delivery caused by acute necrotic hemorrhagic pancreatitis. Rev Fr Gynecol Obstet. 1952;47:379–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Haidlen R. Akute Pankreatitis im Wochenbett Zbl Gynäk. 1884;8:609–11.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Watts S. Acute and subacute pancreatitis. Report of seven cases. Ann Surg. 1918;67:278–92.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Deaver J. Acute pancreatitis. Ann Surg. 1918;68:281–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Joske R. Pancreatitis following pregnancy. BMJ. 1955;1:124–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Go VL, Everhart J. Pancreatitis. In: Everhart JE, editor. Digestive diseases in the United States: epidemiology and impact. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office NIH Publication no. 94–1447; 1994. p. 693.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ramin KD, Ramin SM, Richey SD, et al. Acute pancreatitis in pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1995;173:187–91.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wilkinson E. Acute pancreatitis in pregnancy: a review of 98 cases and a report of 8 new cases. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 1973;28:281–303.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Walker BE, Diddle A. Acute pancreatitis in gynaecologic and obstetric practice. Am J Obstet Gynaecol. 1969;105:206–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Glasgow RE, Visser BC, Harris H, et al. Changing management of gallstone disease during pregnancy. Surg Endosc. 1998;12:241–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Robertson KW, Stewart IS, Imrie C. Severe acute pancreatitis and pregnancy. Pancreatology. 2006;6:309–15.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Corlett RC Jr, Mishell D Jr. Pancreatitis in pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1972;113:281–90.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Jouppila P, Mokka R, Larmi T. Acute pancreatitis in pregnancy. Surg Gynecol Obstet. 1974;139:879–82.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sun L, Li W, Geng Y, et al. Acute pancreatitis in pregnancy. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2011;90:671.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Zhang DL, Huang Y, Yan L, et al. Thirty-eight cases of acute pancreatitis in pregnancy: a 6-year single center retrospective analysis. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technol Med Sci. 2013;33:361–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Maringhini A, Lankisch MR, Zinsmeister A, et al. Acute pancreatitis in the postpartum period: a population-based case-control study. Mayo Clin Proc. 2000;75:361.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hernandez A, Petrov MS, Brooks D, et al. Acute pancreatitis in pregnancy: a 10-year single center experience. J Gastrointest Surg. 2007;11:1623–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Rakshit A, Dey R, De M, et al. Pancreatitis in pregnancy – a scenario in a tertiary care centre. Al Ameen J Med Sci. 2010;3:332–6.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Eddy JJ, Gideonsen MD, Song J, et al. Pancreatitis in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 2008;112:1075–81.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Yadav D, Lowenfels A. Trends in the epidemiology of the first attack of acute pancreatitis: a systemic review. Pancreas. 2006;33:323–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Corbacıoğlu Esmer A, Ozsurmeli M, Kalelioğlu I. Maternal and perinatal outcomes of acute pancreatitis during pregnancy. Gazi Med J. 2012;23:133–7.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Igbinosa O, Poddar S, Pitchumoni C. Pregnancy associated pancreatitis revisited. Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol. 2013;37:177–81.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Tang SJ, Rodriguez-Frias E, Singh S, et al. Acute pancreatitis during pregnancy. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010;8:85–90.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ramin KD, Ramsey P. Disease of the gallbladder and pancreas in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 2001;28:571–80.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Gunduz E, Zengin Y, Ulger B, et al. Demographic properties and clinical outcomes of acute pancreatitis in pregnancy: our experience of 33 patients. Acta Med Mediterr. 2014;30:1285–90.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Geng Y, Li W, Sun L, et al. Severe acute pancreatitis during pregnancy: eleven years experience from a surgical intensive care unit. Dig Dis Sci. 2011;56:3672–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kautzky-Willer A, Prager R, Waldhausl W, et al. Pronounced insulin resistance and inadequate beta-cell secretion characterize lean gestational diabetes during and after pregnancy. Diabetes Care. 1997;20:1717–23.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ross G. Pancreatitis following pregnancy. BMJ. 1955;1:349–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Nies BM, Dreiss R. Hyperlipidemic pancreatitis in pregnancy: a case report and review of the literature. Am J Perinatol. 1990;7:166–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Sekimoto M, Takada T, Kawarada Y, et al. JPN guidelines for the management of acute pancreatitis: epidemiology, etiology, natural history, and outcome predictors in acute pancreatitis. J Hepato-Biliary-Pancreat Surg. 2006;13:10–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Kayatao SE, Eser M, Cam C, et al. Acute pancreatitis associated with hypertriglyceridemia: a life-threatening complication. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2010;281:427–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Herfort K, Fialova V, Srp B. Acute pancreatitis in pregnancy. Mater Med Pol. 1981;13:15–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Ewald N, Hardt PD, Kloer H. Severe hypertriglyceridemia and pancreatitis: presentation and management. Curr Opin Lipidol. 2009;20:497–504.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Chang CC, Hsieh YY, Tsai H, et al. Acute pancreatitis in pregnancy. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 1998;61:85–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Fortson MR, Freedman SN, Webster P III. Clinical assessment of hyperlipidemic pancreatitis. Am J Gastroenterol. 1995;90:2134–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Gan SI, Edwards AL, Symonds C, et al. Hypertriglyceridemia-induced pancreatitis: a case-based review. World J Gastroenterol. 2006;12:7197–202.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Reper P, Attou R, Gucciardo L, et al. Early plasmapheresis as a successful treatment in hypertriglyceridemia-induced acute pancreatitis in first trimester pregnancy following in vitro fertilization. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2014;179:257–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Brunzell JD, Bierman E. Chylomicronemia syndrome. Med Clin N Am. 1982;66:455–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Yadav D, Pitchumoni C. Issues in hyperlipidemic pancreatitis. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2003;36:54–62.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Greenberger NJ, Hatch FT, Drummey G, et al. Pancreatitis and hyperlipidemia. Medicine (Baltimore). 1966;45:161–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Farmer RG, Winkelmann EI, Brown H, et al. Hyperlipoporteinemia and pancreatitis. Am J Med. 1973;54:161–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Buch A, Buch J, Carlsen A, et al. Hyperlipidemia and pancreatitis. World J Surg. 1980;4:307–14.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Dickson AP, O’Neill J, Imrie C. Hyperlipidemia, alcohol abuse and acute pancreatitis. Br J Surg. 1984;71:685–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Dominguez-Munoz JE, Malfertheiner P, Ditschhneit H, et al. Hyperlipidemia in acute pancreatitis. Relationship with etiology, onset and severity of the disease. Int J Pancreatol. 1991;10:261–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Crisan LS, Steidl ET, Rivera-Alsina M. Acute hyperlipidemic pancreatitis in pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008;198:e57–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Kim EJ, Baik JC, Chung JY, et al. A case of acute pancreatitis of the pregnancy. Korean J Obstet Gynecol. 2005;48:1967–70.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Swisher SO, Hunt KK, Schmit P, et al. Management of pancreatitis complicating pregnancy. Am Surg. 1994;60:759–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Block P, Kelly T. Management of gallstone pancreatitis during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Surg Gynecol Obstet. 1989;168:426–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Alcohol consumption among women who are pregnant or who might become pregnant – United States, 2002. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2004;53:1178–81.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Schünmann C, Robins J. Internal haemorrhage resulting from erosion of a pancreatic pseudocyst - a unique cause of fatal postpartum collapse. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2003;23:674–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Glueck CJ, Christopher C, Mishkel MA, et al. Pancreatitis, familial hypertriglyceridemia, and pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1980;136:755–61.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Eddy JJ, Lynch GE, Treacy D. Pancreatic pseudocysts in pregnancy: a case report and review of the literature. J Perinatol. 2003;23:69–72.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Chen CP, Wang KG, Su TH, et al. Acute pancreatitis in pregnancy. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1995;74:607–10.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Bar-David J, Mazor M, Leiberman J, et al. Gestational diabetes complicated by severe hypertriglyceridemia and acute pancreatitis. Arch Obstet Gynecol. 1996;258:101–4.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Fraser W. Hyperparathyroidism. Lancet. 2009;374:145–58.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Kelly T. Primary hyperparathyroidism during pregnancy. Surgery. 1991;110:1028–34.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Prinz RA, Aranha G. The association of primary hyperparathyroidism and pancreatitis. Am Surg. 1985;51:325–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Kort KC, Schiller HJ, Numann P. Hyperparathyroidism and pregnancy. Am J Surg. 1999;177:66–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    McMullen TP, Learoyd DL, Williams D. Hyperparathyroidism in pregnancy: options for localization and surgical therapy. World J Surg. 2010;34:1811–6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Rodgers SE, Lew JI, Solórzano C. Primary hyperparathyroidism. Curr Opin Oncol. 2008;20:52–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Silverberg SJ, Bilezikian J. The diagnosis and management of asymptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism. Nat Clin Pr Endocrinol Metab. 2006;2:494–503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Hunter D, Turnbull H. Hyperparathyroidism: generalized osteitis fibrosa with observations upon bones, parathyroid tumors, and the normal parathyroid glands. Br J Surg. 1931;19:203–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Schnatz PF, Curry S. Primary hyperparathyroidism in pregnancy: evidence-based management. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 2002;57:365–76.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Inabnet WB, Baldwin D, Daniel RO, et al. Hyperparathyroidism and pancreatitis during pregnancy. Surgery. 1996;119:710–3.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Dahan M, Chang R. Pancreatitis secondary to hyperparathyroidism during pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 2001;98:923–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Bess MA, Edis AJ, van Heerden J. Hyperparathyroidism and pancreatitis. Chance or a causal association? JAMA. 1980;243:246–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Kovacs CS, Fuleihan G-H. Calcium and bone disorders during pregnancy and lactation. Endocrinol Metab Clin N Am. 2006;35:21–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Mestman J. Parathyroid disorders of pregnancy. Semin Perinatol. 1998;6:485–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Schnatz PF, Thaxton S. Parathyroidectomy in the third trimester of pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 2005;60:672–82.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Murray JA, Newman WA III, Dacus J. Hyperparathyroidism in pregnancy: diagnostic dilemma? Obstet Gynecol Surv. 1997;52:202–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Jacob JJ, John M, Thomas N, et al. Does hyperparathyroidism cause pancreatitis? A south Indian experience and a review of published work. A N Z J Surg. 2006;76:740–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Khoo TK, Vege SS, Abu-Lebdeh H, et al. Acute pancreatitis in primary hyperparathyroidism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009;94:2115–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Carella M, Gossain V. Hyperparathyroidism and pregnancy: case report and review. J Gen Intern Med. 1992;7:448–53.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Carnaille B, Oudar C, Pattou F, et al. Pancreatitis and primary hyperparathyroidism: forty cases. A N Z J Surg. 1998;68:117–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Shepherd J. Hyperparathyroidism presenting as pancreatitis or complicated by postoperative pancreatitis. A N Z J Surg. 1996;66:85–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Felderbauer P, Karakas E, Fendrich V, et al. Pancreatitis risk in primary hyperparathyroidism: relation to mutations in the SPINK1 trypsin inhibitor (N34S) and the cystic fibrosis gene. Am J Gastroenterol. 2008;103:368–74.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Fabrin B, Eldon K. Pregnancy complicated by concurrent hyperparathyroidism and pancreatitis. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1986;65:651–2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Rajala B, Abbasi RA, Hutchinson HT, et al. Acute pancreatitis and primary hyperparathyroidism in pregnancy: treatment of hypercalcemia with magnesium sulfate. Obstet Gynecol. 1987;70:460–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Soyannwo MA, Bell M, McGeown MG, et al. A case of acute hyperthyroidism, with thyrotoxicosis and pancreatitis, presenting as hyperemesis gravidarum. Postgrad Med J. 1968;44:861–6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Bronsky D, Weisbeyl MG, Gross MC, et al. Hyperparathyroidism and acute postpartum pancreatitis with neonatal tetany in the child. Am J Med Sci. 1970;260:160–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Levine G, Tsin DRA. Acute pancreatitis and hyperparathyroidism in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 1979;54:246–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Hess HM, Dickson J, Fox H. Hyperfunctioning parathyroid carcinoma presenting as acute pancreatitis in pregnancy. J Reprod Med. 1980;25:83–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Thomason JL, Sampson MB, Farb HF, et al. Pregnancy complicated by concurrent primary hyperparathyroidism and pancreatitis. Obstet Gynecol. 1981;57:34S–6S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Warneke G, Henning HV, Isemer F, et al. Primary hyperparathyroidism with acute pancreatitis during pregnancy. Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 1988;113:641–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Kondo Y, Nagai H, Kasahara K, et al. Primary hyperparathyroidism and acute pancreatitis during pregnancy. Report of a case and a review of the English and Japanese literature. Int J Pancreatol. 1998;24:43–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Wells SA Jr, Leight GS, Ross AI. Primary hyperparathyroidism. Curr Probl Surg. 1980;17:398–463.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Hojo S, Tsukimori K, Hanaoka M, et al. Acute pancreatitis and cholecystitis associated with postpartum HELLP syndrome: a case and review. Hypertens Pregnancy. 2007;26:23–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Herring AA, Graubard MB, Gan SI, et al. Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma of the pancreas during pregnancy. Pancreas. 2007;34:470–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Smithers BM, Welch C, Goodall P. Cystadenocarcinoma of the pancreas presenting in pregnancy. Br J Surg. 1986;73:531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Kato M, Kubota K, Kita J, et al. Huge mucinous cystadenoma of the pancreas developing during pregnancy: a case report. Pancreas. 2005;30:186–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Asciutti S, Kanninen TT, Clerici G, et al. Acute pancreatitis with a mucinous cystoadenoma of the pancreas in pregnancy. Anticancer Res. 2010;30:1025–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Olsen ME, Greer MS, Feintuch T. Pancreatic mucinous cystadenoma during pregnancy. Am J Gynecol Heal. 1993;7:27–30.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Perera D, Kandavar R, Palacios E. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma presenting as acute pancreatitis during pregnancy: clinical and radiologic manifestations. J La State Med Soc. 2011;163:114–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    de Oliveira CV, Moreira A, Baima J, et al. Acute fatty liver of pregnancy associated with severe acute pancreatitis: a case report. World J Hepatol. 2014;6:527–31.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Hatfield AK, Stein JH, Greenberger N, et al. Idiopathic acute fatty liver of pregnancy. Death from extrahepatic manifestations. Am J Dig Dis. 1972;17:167–78.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Minakami H, Kimura K, Tamada T, et al. Acute fatty liver of pregnancy: report of a case complicating DIC and acute pancreatitis (author’s transl). Nippon Sanka Fujinka Gakkai Zasshi. 1982;34:637–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Apiratpracha W, Yoshida EM, Charles S, et al. Chronic pancreatitis: a sequela of acute fatty liver of pregnancy. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int. 2008;7:101–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Mondière J. Maladies du pancréas. Arch Gin Med Paris. 1836;42:150.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Berk JE, Smith BH, Akrawi M. Pregnancy pancreatitis. Am J Gastroenterol. 1971;56:216–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Li HP, Huang YJ, Chen X. Acute pancreatitis in pregnancy: a 6-year single center clinical experience. Chin Med J. 2011;124:2771–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Kovacs CS. Calcium and bone metabolism disorders during pregnancy and lactation. Endocrinol Metab Clin N Am. 2011;40:795–826.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Drake TS, Kaplan RA, Lewis T. The physiologic hyperparathyroidism of pregnancy. Is it primary or secondary? Obstet Gynecol. 1979;53:746–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Seely EW, Brown EM, DeMaggio D, et al. A prospective study of calciotropic hormones in pregnancy and post partum: reciprocal changes in serum intact parathyroid hormone and 1,25- dihydroxyvitamin D. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1997;176:214–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Davis OK, Hawkins DS, Rubin L, et al. Serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) in pregnant women determined by an immunoradiometric assay for intact PTH. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1988;67:850–2.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Ammann P, Irion O, Gast J, et al. Alterations of calcium and phosphate metabolism in primary hyperparathyroidism during pregnancy. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1993;72:488–92.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Hosking D. Calcium homeostasis in pregnancy. Clin Endocrinol. 1996;45:1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Pitkin RM, Reynolds WA, Williams GA, et al. Calcium metabolism in normal pregnancy: longitudinal study. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1979;133:781–90.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Amaya García M, Acosta Feria M, Soto Moreno A, et al. Primary hyperparathyroidism in pregnancy. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2004;19:111–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Truong MT, Lalakea ML, Robbins P, et al. Primary hyperparathyroidism in pregnancy: a case series and review. Laryngoscope. 2008;118:1966–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Seki K, Makimura N, Mitsui C, et al. Calcium regulating hormones and osteocalcin levels during pregnancy: a longitudinal study. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1991;164:1248–51.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Providers WPB and CMG for healthcare. Parathyroid Diseases in Pregnancy. Women’s Health and Education Center (WHEC).Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Ludwig G. Hyperparathyroidism in relation to pregnancy. New Engl J Med. 1962;267:637–42.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Kent GN, Price RI, Gutteridge D, et al. The efficiency of intestinal calcium absorption is increased in late pregnancy but not in established lactation. Calcif Tissue Int. 1991;48:293–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Zerwekh J, Breslau N. Human placental production of 1-alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3: biochemical characterization and production in normal subjects and patients with pseudohypoparathyroidism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1986;62:192–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Payne RB, Little AJ, Evans R. Albumin-adjusted calcium concentrations in serum increases during normal pregnancy. Clin Chem. 1990;36:142–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Curto C, Caillard C, Desurmont T, et al. [Acute pancreatitis and primary hyperparathyroidism: a multicentric study by the Francophone Association of Endocrine Surgeons]. J Chir (Paris). 2009;146:270–4.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Ward JB, Petersen OH, Jenkins SA, et al. Is an elevated concentration of acinar cytosolic free ionised calcium the trigger for acute pancreatitis? Lancet. 1995;346:1016–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Mithöfer K, Fernández-del Castillo C, Frick T, et al. Acute hypercalcemia causes acute pancreatitis and ectopic trypsinogen activation in the rat. Gastroenterology. 1995;109:239–46.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Hauser CJ, Kamrath RO, Sparks J, et al. Calcium homeostasis in patients with acute pancreatitis. Surgery. 1983;94:830–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Condon JR, Ives D, Knight MJ, et al. The aetiology of hypocalcaemia in acute pancreatitis. Br J Surg. 1975;62:115–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    McKay C, Beastall GH, Imrie CW, et al. Circulating intact parathyroid hormone levels in acute pancreatitis. Br J Surg. 1994;81:357–60.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Robertson GM, Moore EW, Switz D, et al. Inadequate parathyroid response in acute pancreatitis. New Engl J Med. 1976;294:512–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Cruciat G, Stamatian F, Puscas M, et al. Acute pancreatitis in a pregnant woman with acute fatty liver dystrophy. A case report. J Gastrointest Liver Dis. 2007;16:193–6.Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Treem WR, Shoup ME, Hale D, et al. Acute fatty liver of pregnancy, hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets syndrome, and long chain 3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme a dehydrogenase deficiency. Am J Gastroenterol. 1996;91:2293–300.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Ijlst L, Oostheim W, Ruiter JP, et al. Molecular basis of long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency: identifi cation of two new mutations. J Inherit Metab Dis. 1997;20:420–2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Storck G, Pettersson G, Edlund Y. A study of autopsies upon 116 patients with acute pancreatitis. Surg Gynecol Obstet. 1976;143:241–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Braganza JM, Wickens DG, Cawood P, et al. Lipid-peroxidation (free-radical-oxidation) products in bile from patients with pancreatic disease. Lancet. 1983;2:375–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Knopp R, Bergelin R, Wahl P, et al. Population-based lipoprotein lipid reference values for pregnant women compared to nonpregnant women classified by sex hormone usage. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1982;143:626–37.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Desoye G, Schweditsch MO, Pfeiffer K, et al. Correlation of hormones with lipid and lipoprotein levels during normal pregnancy and postpartum. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1987;64:704–12.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Wiznitzer A, Mayer A, Novack V, et al. Association of lipid levels during gestation with preeclampsia and gestational diabetes mellitus: a population-based study. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2009;201:482.e1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Herrera E. Lipid metabolism in pregnancy and its consequences in the fetus and newborn. Endocrine. 2002;19:43–55.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Grumbach MM, Kaplan SL, Sciarra JJ, et al. Chorionic growth hormone-prolactin: secretion, disposition, biological activity in man and postulated function. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1968;148:501–31.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Hsia SH, Connelly PW, Hegele R. Successful outcome in severe pregnancy-associated hyperlipemia: a case report and literature review. Am J Med Sci. 1995;309:213–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Iverius P-H, Brunzell J. Relationship between lipoprotein lipase activity and plasma sex steroid levels in obese women. J Clin Invest. 1988;82:1106–12.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Eckel RA. Multifunctional enzyme relevant to common metabolic diseases. New Engl J Med. 1989;320:1060–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Salameh WA, Mastrogiannis D. Maternal hyperlipidemia in pregnancy. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 1994;37:66–77.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Ma Y, Ooi TC, Liu M, et al. High frequency of mutations in the lipoprotein lipase gene in pregnancyinduced chylomicronemia: possible association with the apolipoprotein E2 isoform. J Lipid Res. 1994;35:1066–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Ma Y, Liu MS, Ginzinger D, et al. Gene-environment interaction in the conversion of a mild to severe phenotype in a patient homozygous for a ser172 → cys mutation in the lipoprotein lipase gene. J Clin Invest. 1993;91:1953–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Keilson LM, Calvin PH, Sprecher DL, et al. Hyperlipidemia and pancreatitis during pregnancy in two sisters with a mutation in the lipoprotein lipase gene. Ann Intern Med. 1996;124:425–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Knopp RH, Warth MR, Charles D, et al. Lipid metabolism in pregnancy, fat transport to the foetus, and the effects of diabetes. Biol Neonate. 1986;50:297–317.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Jin J, Yu YH, Zhong M, et al. Analyzing and identifying risk factors for acute pancreatitis with different etiologies in pregnancy. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2015;28:267–71.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Cameron JL, Capuzzi DM, Zuidema G. Acute pancreatitis with hyperlipidaemia: incidence of lipid abnormalities in acute pancreatitis. Ann Surg. 1973;177:479–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Havel R. Pathogenesis, differentiation and management of hypertriglyceridemia. Adv Intern Med. 1969;15:117–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Steinberg HO, Tarshoby M, Monestel R, et al. Elevated circulating free fatty acid levels impair endothelium-dependent vasodilation. J Clin Invest. 1997;100:1230–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Anderson RA, Evans ML, Ellis G, et al. The relationships between post-prandial lipaemia, endothelial function and oxidative stress in healthy individuals and patients with type 2 diabetes. Atherosclerosis. 2001;154:475–83.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Ting HJ, Stice JP, Schaff U, et al. Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins prime aortic endothelium for an enhanced inflammatory response to tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Circ Res. 2007;100:381–90.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Grossman A, Oppenheim J, Grondin G, et al. Immunocytochemical localization of the estradiol-binding protein in rat pancreatic acinar cells. Endocrinology. 1989;124:2857–66.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Staels B, Jansen H, van Tol A, et al. Development, food intake, and ethinylestradiol influence hepatic triglyceride lipase and LDL-receptor mRNA levels in rats. J Lipid Res. 1990;31:1211–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Hoefler G, Noehammer C, Levak-Frank S, et al. Muscle-specific overexpression of human lipoprotein lipase in mice causes increased intracellular free fatty acids and induction of peroxisomal enzymes. Biochimie. 1997;79:163–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Blevins GT Jr, Huang HS, Tangoku A, et al. Estrogens influence cholecystokinin stimulated pancreatic amylase release and acinar cell membrane cholecystokinin receptors in rat. Life Sci. 1991;48:1565–74.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Yoshioka T, Koike S, Sugiue A, et al. Hyperlipidemia in pregnancy, clinical observation of the newborn and mother. Nippon Sanfujinka Gakkai Zasshi. 1976;28:369–77.Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    Saharia P, Margolis S, Zuidema MD, et al. Acute pancreatitis with hyperlipidemia: studies with an isolated perfused canine pancreas. Surgery. 1977;82:60–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Cahalane AM, Smith MJ, Ryan J, et al. Acute pancreatitis secondary to gestational hypertriglyceridaemia. Case Rep Med. 2012;2012:627890.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Lloret Linares C, Pelletier AL, Czernichow S, et al. Acute pancreatitis in a cohort of 129 patients referred for severe hypertriglyceridemia. Pancreas. 2008;37:13–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Fredrickson D. An international classification of hyperlipidemias and hyperlipoproteinemias. Ann Intern Med. 1971;75:471–2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Ajala T, Rafi J, Wray R, et al. There may be a link between intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy and familial combined hyperlipidaemia: a case report. Cases J. 2009;2:8679.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Toskes P. Hyperlipidemic pancreatitis. Gastroenterol Clin N Am. 1990;19:783–91.Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    Glueck CJ, Lang J, Hamer T, et al. Severe hypertriglyceridemia and pancreatitis, when estrogen replacement therapy is given to hypertriglyceridemic women. J Lab Clin Med. 1994;123:59–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Havel R. Approach to the patient with hyperlipidemia. Med Clin North Am. 1982;66:319–33.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Rivellese AA, De Natale C, Di Marino L, et al. Exogenous and endogenous postprandial lipid abnormalities in type 2 diabetic patients with optimal blood glucose control and optimal fasting triglyceride levels. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;89:2153–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Goldenberg NM, Wang P, Glueck C. An observational study of severe hypertriglyceridemia, hypertriglyceridemic acute pancreatitis, and failure of triglyceride-lowering therapy when estrogens are given to women with and without familial hypertriglyceridemia. Clin Chim Acta. 2003;332:11–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Issa CM, Abu Khuzam R. In vitro fertilization-induced hypertriglyceridemia with secondary acute pancreatitis and diabetic ketoacidosis. SAGE Open Med Case Rep. 2017;5:2050313X16689209.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    O’Brien T, Dinneen SF, O’Brien P, et al. Hyperlipidemia in patients with primary and secondary hypothyroidism. Mayo Clin Proc. 1993;68:860–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Tagami T, Kimura H, Ohtani S, et al. Multi-center study on the prevalence of hypothyroidism in patients with hypercholesterolemia. Endocr J. 2011;58:449–57.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Jellinger PS, Smith DA, Mehta A, et al. AACE task force for Management of Dyslipidemia and Prevention of atherosclerosis. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists’ guidelines for management of dyslipidemia and prevention of atherosclerosis. Endocr Pr. 2012;18:1–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Garber JR, Cobin RH, Gharib H, et al. Clinical practice guidelines for hypothyroidism in adults: cosponsored by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and the American Thyroid Association. Endocr Pr. 2012;18:988–1028.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Arbel Y, Weinstein D, Yogev R, et al. Acute pancreatitis following clomiphene citrate treatment: case report and review of the literature. Int J Surg. 2008;6:483–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Parulekar PS, Gidden F, Yavari A. A sticky situation. QJM. 2012;105:887.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Palmieri VO, Grattagliano I, Palasciano G. Ethanol induces secretion of oxidized proteins by pancreatic acinar cells. Cell Biol Toxicol. 2007;23:459–64.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Sutton R, Criddle D, Raraty M, et al. Signal transduction, calcium and acute pancreatitis. Pancreatology. 2003;3:497–505.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Kubisch CH, Gukovsky I, Lugea A, et al. Long-term ethanol consumption alters pancreatic gene expression in rats: a possible connection to pancreatic injury. Pancreas. 2006;33:68–76.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Kristiansen L, Gronbaek M, Becker U, et al. Risk of pancreatitis according to alcohol drinking habits: a population-based cohort study. Am J Epidemiol. 2008;168:932–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Schmidt D. Apparent risk factors for chronic and acute pancreatitis in Stockholm County. Spirits but not wine and beer. Int J Pancreatol. 1991;8:45–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Siech M, Weber H, Letko G, et al. Similar morphological and intracellular biochemical changes in alcoholic acute pancreatitis and ischemic acute pancreatitis in rats. Pancreas. 1997;14:32–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Rivero D, Pérez-Magarinõ S, González-Sanjosé M, et al. Inhibition of induced DNA oxidative damage by beers: correlation with the content of polyphenols and melanoidins. J Agric Food Chem. 2005;53:3637–42.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Vonlaufen A, Wilson JS, Apte M. Molecular mechanisms of pancreatitis: current opinion. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008;23:1339–48.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Lachenmeier DW, Taylor B, Rehm J. Lack of evidence for a causal association between the type of alcoholic beverage and the incidence of acute pancreatitis. Pancreas. 2011;40:1143–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Irving HM, Samokhvalov AV, Rehm J. Alcohol as a risk factor for pancreatitis. A systematic review and meta-analysis. JOP. 2009;10:387–92.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Lankisch PG, Droege M, Gottesleben F. Drug-induced acute pancreatitis: incidence and severity. Gut. 1995;37:565.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Werth B, Kuhn MK, Reinhart W. Medikamentoes induzierte Pankreatiden: Erfahrungen der Scweizerischen Arzneimittel-Nebenswirkungenszentrale (SANZ) 1981–1993. Schweiz Med Wochenschr. 1995;125:731.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Mallory A, Kern FJ. Drug-induced pancreatitis: a critical review. Gastroenterology. 1980;78:813.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Rudick J, Gonda M, Dreiling DA, et al. Effects of prostaglandin E1 on pancreatic exocrine function. Gastroenterology. 1971;60:272–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Rosenfeld MG, Abrass I, Chang B. Hormonal stimulation of alpha-amylase synthesis in porcine pancreatic minces. Endocrinology. 1976;99:611–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Hallberg P, Hallberg E, Amini H. Acute pancreatitis following medical abortion: case report. BMC Womens Heal. 2004;4:1–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Wilmink T, Frick T. Drug-induced pancreatitis. Drug Saf. 1996;14:406–23.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Greenberg A. Diuretic complications. Am J Med Sci. 2000;319:10–24.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Morales A, Ruiz Molina JM, Esteves H, et al. Papillary–cystic neoplasm of the pancreas, a sex – steroid dependent tumor. Int J Pancreatol. 1998;24:219–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Zamboni G, Scarpa A, Bogina G, et al. Mucinous cystic tumors of the pancreas: clinicopathological features, prognosis, and relationship to other mucinous cystic tumors. Am J Surg Pathol. 1999;23:410–22.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Volkan Adsay N. Cystic lesions of the pancreas. Mod Pathol. 2007;20:S71–93.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Pothiwala P, Levine S. Parathyroid surgery in pregnancy: review of the literature and localization by aspiration for parathyroid hormone levels. J Perinatol. 2009;29:779–84.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Hultin H, Hellman P, Lundgren E, et al. Association of parathyroid adenoma and pregnancy with preeclampsia. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009;94:3394.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Chandi A, Sirohiwal D, Malik R. Association of early maternal hypertriglyceridemia with pregnancy-induced hypertension. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2015;292:1135–43.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Lorentzen B, Endressen MJ, Clausen T, et al. Fasting serum free fatty acids and triglycerides are increased before 20 weeks of gestation in women who later develop preeclampsia. Hypertens Pregnancy. 1994;13:103–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Parmar M. Pancreatic necrosis associated with preeclampsia – eclampsia. JOP. 2004;5:101–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Marcovici I, Marzano D. Pregnancy-induced hypertension complicated by postpartum renal failure and pancreatitis: a case report. Am J Perinatol. 2002;19:177–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Burns E, Gray R, Smith L. Brief screening questionnaires to identify problem drinking during pregnancy: a systematic review. Addiction. 2010;105:601–14.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Kennedy A. Assessment of acute abdominal pain in the pregnant patient. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 2000;21:64–77.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Marcus M. Akute Pankreaserkrankungen und Gestationvorgaenge. Beit Klin Chir. 1930;149:129–41.Google Scholar
  203. 203.
    Chan AK, Duh QY, Katz M, et al. Clinical manifestations of primary hyperparathyroidism before and after parathyroidectomy. A case-control study. Ann Surg. 1995;222:402–14.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Krysiak R, Wilk M, Okopien B. Recurrent pancreatitis induced by hyperparathyroidism in pregnancy. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2011;284:531–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Malekar-Raikar S, Sinnott B. Primary hyperparathyroidism in pregnancy-a rare cause of life-threatening hypercalcemia: case report and literature review. Case Rep Endocrinol. 2011;2011:520516.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Pereira SP, O’Donohue J, Wendon J, et al. Maternal and perinatal outcome in severe pregnancy-related liver disease. Hepatology. 1997;26:1258–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
  208. 208.
    De Chalain TM, Michell WL, Berger G. Hyperlipidemia, pregnancy and pancreatitis. Surg Gynecol Obstet. 1988;167:469–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Durrington P. Dyslipidaemia. Lancet. 2003;362(9385):717–31.Google Scholar
  210. 210.
    Rymarz E, Matysik-Woźniak A, Baltaziak L, et al. Lipemia retinalis - an unusual cause of visual acuity deterioration. Med Sci Monit. 2012;18:CS72–5.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Jeon SY, Jung E, Seol HJ, et al. Development of Purtscher-like retinopathy after pre-eclampsia combined with acute pancreatitis. Obstet Gynecol Sci. 2013;56:261.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Gupta N, Ahmed S, Shaffer L, et al. Severe hypertriglyceridemia induced pancreatitis in pregnancy. Case Rep Obstet Gynecol. 2014;2014:485493.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Chamarthi B, Greene MF, Dluhy RG. Clinical problem-solving. A problem in gestation. N Engl J Med. 2011;365:843–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Larsson A, Palm M, Hansson LO, et al. Reference values for clinical chemistry tests during normal pregnancy. BJOG. 2008;115:874–81.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Correspondence FO. BMJ. 1955;1:349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Correspondence GRA. BMJ. 1955;1:349–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Matull W, Pereira S, O’Donohue J. Biochemical markers of acute pancreatitis. J Clin Pathol. 2006;59:340.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Vissers R, Abu-Laban R, McHugh D. Amylase and lipase in the emergency department evaluation of acute pancreatitis. J Emerg Med. 1999;17:1027–37.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Karsenti D, Bacq Y, Bréchot J, et al. Serum amylase and lipase activities in normal pregnancy: a prospective case-control study. Am J Gastroenterol. 2001;96:697–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Neoptolemos JP, Hall AW, Finlay D, et al. The urgent diagnosis of gallstones in acute pancreatitis: a prospective study of three methods. Br J Surg. 1984;71:230.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Minakami H, Nakayama H, Yano H, et al. Recurrent pancreatitis in the third trimester in 2 consecutive pregnancies–its relationship to liver histology: a case report. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 1989;15:147–50.Google Scholar
  222. 222.
    Yadav D, Agarwal N, Pitchumoni C. A critical evaluation of laboratory tests in acute pancreatitis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2002;97:1309–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    Sreelatha S, Nataraj V. Acute pancreatitis in pregnancy. Indian J Clin Pr. 2012;23:231–2.Google Scholar
  224. 224.
    Castro MA, Fassett MJ, Reynolds T, et al. Reversible peripartum liver failure: a new perspective on the diagnosis, treatment, and cause of acute fatty liver of pregnancy, based on 28 consecutive cases. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1999;181:389–95.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Rajasri AG, Srestha R, Mitchell J. Acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP) - an overview. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2007;27:237–40.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Ibdah J. Acute fatty liver of pregnancy: an update on pathogenesis and clinical implications. World J Gastroenterol. 2006;12:7397–404.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    Boakye MK, Macfoy D, Rice C. Alcoholic pancreatitis in pregnancy. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2006;26:814.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    Koscica KL, Nwaubani U, Nazir M, et al. Severe hyperlipidemia induced hemorrhagic pancreatitis during pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol Int. 2009;2009:383942.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    Abu Musa AA, Usta IM, Rechdan JB, et al. Recurrent hypertriglyceridemia-induced pancreatitis in pregnancy: a management dilemma. Pancreas. 2006;32:227–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. 230.
    Henderson H, Leisegang F, Hassan F, et al. A novel Glu42 1Lys substitution in the lipoprotein lipase gene in pregnancy-induced hypertriglyceridemic pancreatitis. Clin Chim Acta. 1998;269:1–12.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    Abboud B, Daher R, Boujaoude J. Digestive manifestations of parathyroid disorders. World J Gastroenterol. 2011;17:4063–6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  232. 232.
    Kokrdova Z. Pregnancy and primary hyperparathyroidism. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2010;30:57–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. 233.
    Kraimps JL, Denizot A, Carnaille B, et al. Primary hyperparathyroidism in multiple endocrine neoplasia type IIa: retrospective French multicentric study. World J Surg. 1996;20:808–13.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. 234.
    Solomon SS, Duckworth WC, Jallepalli P. The glucose intolerance of acute pancreatitis: hormonal response to arginine. Diabetes. 1980;29:22–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    Nair S, Yadav D, Pitchumoni C. Association of diabetic ketoacidosis and acute pancreatitis: observations in 100 consecutive episodes of DKA. Am J Gastroenterol. 2000;95:2795–800.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. 236.
    Haukland HH, Florholmen J, Oian P, et al. The effect of severe pre-eclampsia on the pancreas: changes in the serum cationic trypsinogen and pancreatic amylase. BJOG. 1987;94:765–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. 237.
    Howard JM, Reed J. Pseudohyponatremia in acute hyperlipemic pancreatitis. A potential pitfall in therapy. Arch Surg. 1985;120:1053–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    Warshaw AL, Bellini CA, Lesser P. Inhibition of serum and urine amylase activity in pancreatitis with hyperlipemia. Ann Surg. 1975;182:72–5.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  239. 239.
    Kroll MH, Elin R. Interference with clinical laboratory analyses. Clin Chem. 1994;40:1996–2005.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. 240.
    Devore GR, Braken M, Berkowitz R. The amylase/creatinine clearance ratio in normal pregnancies and pregnancies complicated by pancreatitis, hyperemesis, and toxemia. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1980;136:747–54.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. 241.
    Sniderman AD, Blank D, Zakarian R, et al. Triglycerides and small dense LDL: the twin Achilles heels of the Friedewald formula. Clin Biochem. 2003;36:499–504.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. 242.
    Warnick GR, Knopp RH, Fitzpatrick V, et al. Estimating low-density lipoprotein cholesterol by the Friedewald equation is adequate for classifying patients on the basis of nationally recommended cutpoints. Clin Chem. 1990;36:15–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. 243.
    Dunham CM, Fealk MH, Sever W III. Following severe injury, hypocholesterolemia improves with convalescence but persists with organ failure or onset of infection. Crit Care. 2003;7:R145–53.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  244. 244.
    Chuang S-C, Lee K-T, Wang S-N, et al. Hypertriglyceridemia-associated acute pancreatitis with chylous ascites in pregnancy. J Formos Med Assoc. 2006;105:583–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. 245.
    Badja N, Troche G, Zazzo JF, et al. Acute pancreatitis and preeclampsia-eclampsia. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1997;176:707–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. 246.
    Moon JH, Cho YD, Cha S, et al. The detection of bile duct stones in suspected biliary pancreatitis: comparison of MRCP, ERCP, and intraductal US. Am J Gastroenterol. 2005;100:1051–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. 247.
    Varghese JC, Liddell RP, Farrell M, et al. The diagnostic accuracy of MR cholangiopancreatography and US compared with direct cholangiography in the detection of choledocholithiasis. Clin Radiol. 1999;54:604–14.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. 248.
    Abdullah B, Kathiresan Pillai T, Cheen LH, et al. Severe acute pancreatitis in pregnancy. Case Rep Obstet Gynecol. 2015;2015:239068.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  249. 249.
    Sahu S, Raghuvanshi S, Bahl D, et al. Acute pancreatitis in pregnancy. Internet J Surg. 2007;11:2.Google Scholar
  250. 250.
    Han DH, Moh IH, Kim DM, et al. Gestational hyperlipidemia and acute pancreatitis with underlying partial lipoprotein lipase deficiency and apolipoprotein E3/E2 genotype. Korean J Intern Med. 2013;28:609–13.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  251. 251.
    Leyendecker JR, Gorengaut V, Brown J. MR imaging of maternal diseases of the abdomen and pelvis during pregnancy and the immediate postpartum period. Radiographics. 2004;24:1301–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. 252.
    Chow AW, Soll BA, Targan SR, et al. Hyperamylasemia associated with gonococcal salpingitis and perihepatitis. Obstet Gynecol. 1976;48:29s–30s.Google Scholar
  253. 253.
    Norwood SH, Torma MJ, Fontenelle L. Hyperamylasemia due to poorly differentiated adenosquamous carcinoma of the ovary. Arch Surg. 1981;116:225–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  254. 254.
    Lomanto D, Pavone P, Laghi A, et al. MR cholangiopancreatography in the diagnosis of biliopancratic diseases. Am J Surg. 1997;174:33–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  255. 255.
    Jamal MM, Yoon EJ, Saadi A, et al. Trends in the utilization of ERCP in the United States. Am J Gastroenterol. 2007;102:966–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. 256.
    Chaundhry S, Hussain R. Acute pancreatitis in pregnancy: a rare presentation. Prof Med J. 2012;19:747–50.Google Scholar
  257. 257.
    Oto A, Ernst R, Ghulmiyyah L, et al. The role of MR cholangiopancreatography in the evaluation of pregnant patients with acute pancreaticobiliary disease. Br J Radiol. 2009;82:279–85.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  258. 258.
    Bansal VK, Misra MC, Goswami A, et al. Laparoscopic management of pseudocyst of the pancreas in a pregnant patient. Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech. 2012;22:e37–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. 259.
    van der Waaij LA, van Dullemen HM, Porte R. Cyst fluid analysis in the differential diagnosis of pancreatic cystic lesions: a pooled analysis. Gastrointest Endosc. 2005;62:383–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  260. 260.
    Hammel P, Levy P, Voitot H, et al. Preoperative cyst fluid analysis is useful for the differential diagnosis of cystic lesions of the pancreas. Gastroenterology. 1995;108:1230–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  261. 261.
    Attasaranya S, Pais S, LeBlanc J, et al. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration and cyst fluid analysis for pancreatic cysts. JOP. 2007;8:553–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  262. 262.
    Ott MC, Malthaner RA, Reid R. Intraoperative radioguided thoracoscopic removal of ectopic parathyroid adenoma. Ann Thorac Surg. 2001;72:1758–60.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  263. 263.
    Weigel TL, Murphy J, Kabbani L, et al. Radioguided thoracoscopic mediastinal parathyroidectomy with intraoperative parathyroid testing. Ann Thorac Surg. 2005;80:1262–5.Google Scholar
  264. 264.
    Ishibashi M, Nishida H, Hiromatsu Y, et al. Localization of ectopic parathyroid glands using technetium-99m sestamibi imaging: comparison with magnetic resonance and computed tomographic imaging. Eur J Nucl Med. 1997;24:197–201.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  265. 265.
    Green C. Identification of alpha-amylase as a secretion of the human fallopian tube and “tubelike” epithelium of mullerian and mesonephric duct origin. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1974;73:402–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  266. 266.
    Pieper-Bigelow C, Strocchi A, Levitt M. Where does serum amylase come from and where does it go? Gastroenerol Clin North Am. 1990;19:793–810.Google Scholar
  267. 267.
    Johnson A, Cluskey B, Hooshvar N, et al. Significantly elevated serum lipase in pregnancy with nausea and vomiting: acute pancreatitis or hyperemesis gravidarum? Case Rep Obstet Gynecol. 2015;2015:359239.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  268. 268.
    Christensen H, Larsen M, Schebye O. Serum amylase levels in gynecologic patients with acute abdominal pain. Surg Gynecol Obstet. 1992;175:355–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. 269.
    Pacheco R, Nishioka Sde A, de Oliveira L. Validity of serum amylase and lipase in the differential diagnosis between acute/acutized chronic pancreatitis and other causes of acute abdominal pain. Arq Gastroenterol. 2003;40:233–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  270. 270.
    Berk JE, Fridhandler L. Hyperamylasemia: interpretation and newer approaches to evaluation. Adv Intern Med. 1980;26:235–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  271. 271.
    Saruc M, Yuceyar H, Turkel N, et al. The role of heme in hemolysis-induced acute pancreatitis. Med Sci Monit. 2007;13:67–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  272. 272.
    Mitura K, Romanczuk M. Ruptured ectopic pregnancy mimicking acute pancreatitis. Ginekol Pol. 2009;80:383–5.Google Scholar
  273. 273.
    McIntosh J, Lauer J, Gunatilake R, et al. Multiple myeloma presenting as hypercalcemic pancreatitis during pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 2014;124:461–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  274. 274.
    Pezzilli R, Zerbi A, Di Carlo V, et al. Practical guidelines for acute pancreatitis. Pancreatology. 2010;10:523–35.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  275. 275.
    Wada K, Takada T, Hirata K, et al. Treatment strategy for acute pancreatitis. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Sci. 2010;17:79–86.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  276. 276.
    Hasibeder WR, Torgersen C, Rieger M. Critical care of the patient with acute pancreatitis. Anaesth Intensive Care. 2009;37:190–206.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  277. 277.
    Russo-Stieglitz KE, Levine AB, Wagner BA, et al. Pregnancy outcoming patient requiring parenteral nutrition. J Matern Fetal Med. 1999;8:164–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  278. 278.
    Meier R, Ockenga J, Pertkiewicz M, et al. ESPEN guidelines on enteral nutrition: pancreas. Clin Nutr. 2006;25:275–84.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  279. 279.
    Villatoro E, Mulla M, Larvin M. Antibiotic therapy for prophylaxis against infection of pancreatic necrosis in acute pancreatitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;5:CD002941.Google Scholar
  280. 280.
    Jain P. Acute pancreatitis in pregnancy: an unresolved issue. World J Gastroenterol. 2010;16:2065–6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  281. 281.
    Heikkilä A, Renkonen OV, Erkkola R. Pharmacokinetics and transplacental passage of imipenem during pregnancy. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1992;36:2652–5.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  282. 282.
    Caro-Patón T, Carvajal A, Martin de Diego I, et al. Is metronidazole teratogenic? A meta-analysis. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1997;44:179–82.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  283. 283.
    Dunham M. Clinical impact of continuous renal replacement therapy on multiple organ failure. World J Surg. 2001;25:669–76.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  284. 284.
    Wang H, Li WQ, Zhou W, et al. Clinical effects of continuous high volume hemofi ltration on severe acute pancreatitis complicated with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. World J Gastroenterol. 2003;9:2096.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  285. 285.
    Ronco C, Tetta C, Mariano F, et al. Interpreting the mechanisms of continuous renal replacement therapy in sepsis: the peak concentration hypothesis. Artif Organs. 2003;27:792–801.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  286. 286.
    Tang Y, Zhang L, Fu P, et al. Hemoperfusion plus continuous veno-venous hemofiltration in a pregnant woman with severe acute pancreatitis: a case report. Int Urol Nephrol. 2012;44(3):987–90.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  287. 287.
    Nathens AB, Curtis JR, Beale R, et al. Management of the critically ill patient with severe acute pancreatitis. Crit Care Med. 2004;32:2524–36.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  288. 288.
    Gardner TB, Vege SS, Pearson RK, et al. Fluid resuscitation in acute pancreatitis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008;6:1070–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  289. 289.
    Demirkiran O, Dikmen Y, Utku T, et al. Critically ill obstetric patients in the intensive care unit. Int J Obstet Anesth. 2003;(4):266–70.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  290. 290.
    Connor W. The dietary treatment of hypertriglyceridemia. Med Clin North Am. 1982;66:485.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  291. 291.
    Weinberg RB, Sitrin MD, Adkins GM, et al. Treatment of hyperlipidemic pancreatitis in pregnancy with total parenteral nutrition. Gastroenterology. 1982;83:1300–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  292. 292.
    Takaishi K, Miyoshi J, Matsumura T, et al. Hypertriglyceridemic acute pancreatitis during pregnancy: prevention with diet therapy and omega-3 fatty acids in the following pregnancy. Nutrition. 2009;25:1094–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  293. 293.
    Healy AP, Sharer N, Rameh B, et al. Prevention of recurrent pancreatitis in familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency with high-dose antioxidant therapy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999;84:1203–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  294. 294.
    Sanderson SL, Iverius PH, Wilson D. Successful hyperlipemic pregnancy. JAMA. 1991;265:1858–60.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  295. 295.
    Ihimoyan A, Chelimilla H, Kalakada N, et al. Hypertriglyceridemia induced pancreatitis in a nondiabetic pregnant patient requiring the use of total parenteral nutrition. Gastroenterol Res. 2011;4:88–91.Google Scholar
  296. 296.
    Smith JR, Friedell ML, Cheatham M, et al. Peripherally inserted central catheters revisited. Am J Surg. 1998;176:208–11.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  297. 297.
    Ng PK, Ault MJ, Ellrodt AG, et al. Peripherally inserted central catheters in general medicine. Mayo Clin Proc. 1997;72:225–33.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  298. 298.
    Willard DL, Leung AM, Pearce E. Thyroid function testing in patients with newly diagnosed hyperlipidemia. JAMA Intern Med. 2014;174:287–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  299. 299.
    Loo CC, Tan J. Decreasing the plasma triglyceride level in hypertriglyceridemia-induced pancreatitis in pregnancy: a case report. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2002;187:241–2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  300. 300.
    Ong JM, Kirchgessner TG, Schotz M, et al. Insulin increases the synthetic rate and messenger RNA level of lipoprotein lipase in isolated rat adipocytes. J Biol Chem. 1988;253:933–8.Google Scholar
  301. 301.
    Korn E. Clearing factor, a heparin-activated lipoprotein lipase. I. Isolation and characterization of the enzyme from normal rat heart. J Biol Chem. 1955;215:1–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  302. 302.
    Sleth JC, Lafforgue E, Servais R, et al. A case of hypertriglycideremia-induced pancreatitis in pregnancy: value of heparin. Ann Fr Anesth Reanim. 2004;23:835–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  303. 303.
    Nasstrom B, Olivecrona G, Olivecrona T, et al. Lipoprotein lipase during continuous heparin infusion: tissue stores become partially depleted. J Lab Clin Med. 2001;138:206–13.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  304. 304.
    Weintraub M, Rassin T, Eisenberg S, et al. Continuous intravenous heparin administration in humans causes a decrease in serum lipolytic activity and accumulation of chylomicrons in circulation. J Lipid Res. 1994;35:229–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  305. 305.
    Betteridge DJ, Bakowski M, Taylor K, et al. Treatment of severe diabetic hypertriglyceridemia by plasma exchange. Lancet. 1978;1:1368.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  306. 306.
    Basaran A. Pregnancy-induced hyperlipoproteinemia: review of the literature. Reprod Sci. 2009;16:431–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  307. 307.
    Piolot A, Nadler F, Cavallero E, et al. Prevention of recurrent acute pancreatitis in patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia: value of regular plasmapheresis. Pancreas. 1996;13:96–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  308. 308.
    Yamauchi H, Sunamura M, Takeda K, et al. Hyperlipidemia and pregnancy associated pancreatitis with reference to plasma exchange as a therapeutic intervention. Tohoku J Exp Med. 1986;148:197–205.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  309. 309.
    Altun D, Eren G, Cukurova Z, et al. An alternative treatment in hypertriglyceridemia-induced acute pancreatitis in pregnancy: Plasmapheresis. J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol. 2012;28:252–4.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  310. 310.
    Achard JM, Westeel PF, Moriniere P, et al. Pancreatitis related to severe acute hypertriglyceridemia during pregnancy: treatment with lipoprotein apheresis. Intensive Care Med. 1991;17:236–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  311. 311.
    Swoboda K, Derfler K, Koppensteiner R, et al. Extracorporeal lipid elimination for treatment of gestational hyperlipidemic pancreatitis. Gastroenterology. 1993;104:1527–31.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  312. 312.
    Ahner R, Speiser P, Swoboda K, et al. Hyperlipidemia-induced pancreatitis in pregnancy. Successful long-term treatment by extracorporeal elimination of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. Gynakol Geburtshilfliche Rundsch. 1993;33:337.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  313. 313.
    Saadi HF, Kurlander DJ, Erkins JM, et al. Severe hypertriglyceridemia and acute pancreatitis during pregnancy: treatment with gemfibrozil. Endocr Pr. 1999;5:33–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  314. 314.
    Staels B, Dallongeville J, Auwerx J, et al. Mechanism of action of fibrates on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. Circulation. 1998;98:2088–93.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  315. 315.
    Harris WS, Ginsberg HN, Arunakul N, et al. Safety and efficacy of Omacor in severe hypertriglyceridemia. J Cardiovasc Risk. 1997;4:385–91.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  316. 316.
    Miller DB, Spence J. Clinical pharmacokinetics of fibric acid derivatives (fibrate). Clin Pharmacokinet. 1998;34:155–62.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  317. 317.
    Evans JR, Forland SC, Cutler R. The effect of renal function on the pharmacokinetics of gemfibrozil. J Clin Pharmacol. 1987;27:994–1000.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  318. 318.
    Oldemeyer JB, Lund RJ, Koch M, et al. Rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure after changing statin-fibrate combinations. Cardiology. 2000;84:127–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  319. 319.
    Magarian GJ, Lucas LM, Colley C. Gemfibrozil-induced myopathy. Arch Intern Med. 1991;151:1873–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  320. 320.
    Tsai EC, Brown JA, Veldee M, et al. Potential of essential fatty acid deficiency with extremely low fat diet in lipoprotein lipase deficiency during pregnancy: a case report. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2004;4:27.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  321. 321.
    Manson MJ, Freyssinges C, Ducrocq MB, et al. Postmarketing surveillance of lovastatin and simvastatin exposure during pregnancy. Reprod Toxicol. 1996;10:439–46.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  322. 322.
    Pollack PS, Shields KE, Burnett D, et al. Pregnancy outcomes after maternal exposure to simvastatin and lovastatin. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2005;73:888–96.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  323. 323.
    Kazmin A, Garcia-Bournissen F, Koren G. Risks of statin use during pregnancy: a systematic review. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2007;29:906–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  324. 324.
    Mitchell DM, Jüppner H. Regulation of calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism in the fetus and neonate. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obstet. 2010;17:25–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  325. 325.
    Horjus C, Groot I, Telting D, et al. Cinacalcet for hyperparathyroidism in pregnancy and puerperium. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2009;22:741–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  326. 326.
    Nussbaum S. Pathophysiology and management of severe hypercalcemia. Endocrinol Metab Clin N Am. 1993;22:343–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  327. 327.
    Ko C. Biliary sludge and acute pancreatitis during pregnancy. Nat Clin Pr. Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006;3:53–7.Google Scholar
  328. 328.
    Pai PR, Shah HK, Samsi A. Post-partum pancreatitis. J Postgrad Med. 1993;39:93–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  329. 329.
    Nakamuro M, Miyata M, Hatanaka N et al. Ultrasonographic monitoring of pancreatic pseudocyst during delivery. Med J Osaka Univ. 1991;40:39–44.Google Scholar
  330. 330.
    Ryan M. Endoscopic management of a pancreatic pseudocyst during pregnancy. Gastrointest Endosc. 1992;38:605–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  331. 331.
    Bradley E. Pancreatic pseudocysts. In: Bradley E, editor. Complications of pancreatitis: medical and surgical management. Philadelphia: Saunders; 1982. p. 124–53.Google Scholar
  332. 332.
    Reber H. The pancreas. In: Schwartz SI, Shiver GT, Spencer FC, Daly JM, Fischer JE, Galloway A, editors. Principles of surgery. New York: McGraw Hill; 1999. p. 1485–7.Google Scholar
  333. 333.
    Petit D, Clark L. Hyperparathyroidism and pregnancy. Am J Surg. 1947;74:860–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  334. 334.
    Shangold MM, Dor N, Welt S, et al. Hyperparathyroidism and pregnancy: a review. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 1982;37:217–28.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  335. 335.
    Wilkinson H, Poon P, Stott A. Hyperparathyroidism in pregnancy: three case reports. Ann Clin Biochem. 1992;25:467–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  336. 336.
    Sanghvi KP, Pinto J, Merchant R. Neonatal outcome in maternal hyperparathyroidism. Indian Pediatr. 1996;33:960–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  337. 337.
    Russell CFJ, Edis AJ, Scholz D, et al. Mediastinal parathyroid tumors. Experience with 38 tumors requiring mediastinotomy for removal. Ann Surg. 1981;193:805–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  338. 338.
    Rooney DP, Traub AI, Russell CFJ, et al. Cure of hyperparathyroidism in pregnancy by sternotomy and removal of a mediastinal parathyroid adenoma. Postgrad Med J. 1998;74:233–6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  339. 339.
    Doherty GM, Doppman JL, Miller D, et al. Results of multidisciplinary strategy for management of mediastinal parathyroid adenoma as a cause of persistent primary hyperparathyroidism. Ann Surg. 1992;215:101–6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  340. 340.
    O’Herrin JK, Weigel T, Wilson M, et al. Radioguided parathyroidectomy via VATS combined with intraoperative parathyroid hormone testing: the surgical approach of choice for patients with mediastinal parathyroid adenomas? J Bone Min Res. 2002;17:1368–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  341. 341.
    Sunamura M, Yamauchi H, Takeda K, et al. A case of acute pancreatitis associated with hyperlipidemia and pregnancy with reference to plasma exchange as a therapeutic intervention. Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi. 1985;82:2139–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  342. 342.
    Chu AJ, Rooney S. Estrogen stimulation of surfactant synthesis. Pediatr Pulmonol. 1985;1:S110–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  343. 343.
    Montgomery WH, Miller F. Pancreatitis and pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 1970;35:658–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  344. 344.
    Lykkesfeldt G, Bock JE, Pdersen F, et al. Excessive hypertriglyceridaemia and pancreatitis in pregnancy: association with lipoprotein lipase deficiency. Acta Obstet Gynecol. Scandinavica. 1981;60:79–82.Google Scholar
  345. 345.
    Potter JM, Nestel P. The hyperlipidemia of pregnancy in normal and complicated pregnancies. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1979;133:165–70.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  346. 346.
    Young K. Acute pancreatitis in pregnancy: two case reports. Obstet Gynecol. 1982;60:653–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  347. 347.
    Dabaghi T, Shariati M, Dadashaliha M, et al. Acute severe pancreatitis in pregnancy masquerading as partial Hemolysis elevated liver enzymes low platelet (HELLP) syndrome. Biotech Heal Sci. 2015;2:e28781.Google Scholar
  348. 348.
    Hua-dong Q, Jian-guo Z, Chuan-le L, et al. Three cases of hyperlipidemic pancreatitis in late pregnancy. Chin Med J. 2004;117:314–5.Google Scholar
  349. 349.
    Choy CMY, Tam WH, Leung T. Gestational hyperlipidaemic pancreatitis. BJOG. 2002;109:847–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  350. 350.
    Stowell JC, Bottsford JE, Rubel H. Pancreatitis with pseudocyst and cholelithiasis in third trimester of pregnancy. South Med J. 1984;77:502–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  351. 351.
    Printen KJ, Ott R. Cholecystectomy during pregnancy. Am Surg. 1978;44:432–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  352. 352.
    Becker W. Acute pancreatitis; clincial study of one hundred cases. J La State Med Soc. 1954;106:166–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  353. 353.
    Romer JF, Carey L. Pancreatitis. A clinical review Am J Surg. 1966;111:795–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  354. 354.
    Yamane Y, Kodama T, Kashima K. Acute pancreatitis in pregnancy. Kan Tan Sui. 1996;33:859–67.Google Scholar
  355. 355.
    Ohmoto K, Neishi Y, Miyake I, et al. Severe acute pancreatitis associated with hyperlipidemia: report of two cases and review if the literature in Japan. Hepato-Gastroenterology. 1999;46:2986–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  356. 356.
    Dixon NP, Faddis DM, Silberman H. Aggressive management of cholecystitis during pregnancy. Am J Surg. 1987;154:292–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  357. 357.
    Maringhini A, Ciambra M, Baccelliere P, et al. Biliary sludge and gallstones in pregnancy: incidence, risk factors, and natural history. Ann Intern Med. 1993;119:116–20.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  358. 358.
    Swisher SG, Schmit PJ, Hunt K, et al. Biliary disease during pregnancy. Am J Surg. 1994;168:576–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  359. 359.
    Okamura D, Starr ME, Lee E, et al. Age-dependent vulnerability to experimental acute pancreatitis is associated with increased systemic inflammation and thrombosis. Aging Cell. 2012;11:760–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  360. 360.
    Sunamura M, Matsuno S, Takeda K, et al. Experimental study on the pathogenesis of pulmonary insuffi ciency in acute pancreatitis and changes in the pulmonary surfactant. Nihon Geka Gakkai Zasshi. 1988;89:1049–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  361. 361.
    Date RS, Kaushal M, Ramesh A. A review of the management of gallstone disease and its complications in pregnancy. Am J Surg. 2008;196:599–608.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  362. 362.
    Pagliari M. On an unusual case of uterine apoplexy preceded by an acute necrosis of the pancreas. Quad Clin Ostet Ginecol. 1962;17:589–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  363. 363.
    Cheang CU, Ho SW, Tee Y, et al. Acute necrotizing pancreatitis complicating uteroplacental apoplexy. Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol. 2007;46:64–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  364. 364.
    Tang SJ, Mayo ML, Rodriguez-Frias E, et al. Safety and utility of ERCP during pregnancy. Gastrointest Endosc. 2009;69:453–61.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  365. 365.
    Norman J, Politz D, Politz L. Hyperparathyroidism during pregnancy and the effect of rising calcium on pregnancy loss: a call for earlier intervention. Clin Endocrinol. 2009;71:104–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  366. 366.
    Delmonico FL, Neer RM, Cosimi AB, et al. Hyperparathyroidism during pregnancy. Am J Surg. 1976;131:328–37.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  367. 367.
    Friderichsen C. Tetany in a suckling. with latent osteitis fibrosa in the mother Lancet. 1939;233:85–6.Google Scholar
  368. 368.
    Sauer M, Steere A, Parsons M. Hyperparathyroidism in pregnancy with sonographic documentation of a parathyroid adenoma: a case report. J Reprod Med. 1985;30:615–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  369. 369.
    Varner M, Rinderknecht N. Acute fatty metamorphosis of pregnancy. A maternal mortality and literature review. J Reprod Med. 1980;24:177–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  370. 370.
    Knox TA, Olans L. Liver disease in pregnancy. New Engl J Med. 1996;335:569–76.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  371. 371.
    Kaplan M. Acute fatty liver of pregnancy. New Engl J Med. 1985;313:367–70.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  372. 372.
    Balachandra S, Virlos IT, King N, et al. Hyperlipidemia and outcome in acute pancreatitis. Int J Clin Pr. 2006;60:156–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  373. 373.
    Anderson F, Thomson SR, Clarke DL, et al. Dyslipidaemic pancreatitis clinical assessment and analysis of disease severity and outcomes. Pancreatology. 2009;9:252–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  374. 374.
    Navarro S, Cubiella J, Feu F, et al. Hypertriglyceridemic acute pancreatitis. Is its clinical course different from lithiasic acute pancreatitis? Med Clin. 2004;123:567–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  375. 375.
    Kahraman S, Dirice E, De Jesus D, et al. Maternal insulin resistance and transient hyperglycemia impact the metabolic and endocrine phenotypes of offspring. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2014;307:E906–18.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  376. 376.
    Knowler W, Pettitt DJ, Kunzelman CL, et al. Genetic and environment determinants of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Res Clin Pr. 1985;Suppl 1:S309.Google Scholar
  377. 377.
    Martin AO, Simpson JL, Ober C, et al. Frequency of diabetes mellitus in mothers of probands with gestational diabetes: possible maternal influence on the predisposition to gestational diabetes. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1985;151:471–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  378. 378.
    Hotamisligil G. Inflammation and metabolic disorders. Nature. 2006;444:860–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  379. 379.
    Swank M, Nageotte M, Hatfield T. Necrotizing pancreatitis associated with severe preeclampsia. Obstet Gynecol. 2012;120:453–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Goran Augustin
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Medicine University of ZagrebZagrebCroatia
  2. 2.Department of SurgeryUniversity Hospital Centre ZagrebZagrebCroatia

Personalised recommendations