A State-Building Response to Organized Crime, Illicit Economies, Hybrid Threats, and Hybrid Governance
In the chapter the author highlights the undesirable outcomes of doctrinaire law enforcement approaches and offers recommendations for the adoption of multifaceted policy responses. She argues that in order to design effective policy responses to organized crime and appropriately structure external assistance, it is important to stop thinking about crime solely as aberrant social activity to be suppressed, but instead think of crime as competition in state-making. A recognition that states often directly, not just indirectly foster and use crime, is equally important for devising successful strategies. In strong states that effectively address the needs of their societies, non-state entities cannot outcompete the state on a large scale. But in areas of socio-political marginalisation and poverty, non-state actors do—and they thus gain legitimacy within society.