Emission Trading Schemes and Carbon Markets in the NDCs: Their Contribution to the Paris Agreement
At present there are 18 emission trading schemes (ETS) operating in the world. At the COP21 in Paris a clear path for climate and energy policies has been outlined over the coming decades: states have committed themselves to reach zero net emissions by the second half of this century and to maintain the average global temperature rise well below 2 °C, with an additional effort to stay within 1.5 °C. 191 countries, whose emissions cover 98.9% of global greenhouse gas emissions, have already submitted their INDCs/NDCs. The contribution of this paper is twofold. First, it presents a review of the existing ETS and the incumbent ones, like the Chinese national scheme. The ETS currently existing are summarized in a table and than described. Moreover, an overview of the countries which are planning to start new cap-and-trade systems is provided, as well as a table showing which countries included a reference to an ETS in their INDC/NDC. Second, it offers a comprehensive overview about what the countries included in their NDCs about national ETS and international carbon markets. In fact, many developing countries are now considering to access carbon finance to fulfil part of their commitments. But in order for them to receive this kind of finance, and therefore to be able to achieve their climate targets, there has to be a demand for credits. For this reason, understanding whether there will be this match between demand and offer for carbon credits will lead to more efficient choices in policy making, for both sides of the market and thus contribute to the achievement of the Paris Agreement.
KeywordsClimate change Carbon markets Emission trading Paris agreement ETS NDC NDCs COP21 Cap-and-trade Climate mitigation NDCs implementation
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