Advertisement

Environmental Migrations Without Environmental Migrants? Perceptions and Policies on Environmental and Mobility Issues

  • Inês Vieira
Chapter
Part of the Climate Change Management book series (CCM)

Abstract

Environment, migration and asylum are among the most socially constructed issues of the 21st century. The intersection of these issues has recently gained institutional recognition in diverse UN frameworks and conventions. Despite the reiterated importance to research and develop policies on environmental migrations, the identification of “environmental/climate refugees/migrants” has been discouraged (IPCC, Foresight), considering the difficulty of isolating the environmental factor within mobility drivers, and the non-identification with such labels by some of the people which could be paradigmatically affected by environmental and climate changes. This paper brings into discussion the results of qualitative Ph.D. research work (the author benefited from a Ph.D. grant by FCT from 2011 to 2015 (SFRH/BD/68730/2010). This article was made with the support of CICS. NOVA—Interdisciplinary Centre of Social Sciences of the Universidade Nova de Lisboa, UID/SOC/04647/2013, with the financial support of FCT/MCTES through National funds) developed with Ethiopians and Eritreans in Italy and Cape Verdeans in Portugal. The aim is to explore the reflexivity of migrants and refugees from countries with environmental risk, observing their representations of environmental factors in the countries of origin, interrelated with other drivers of mobility (mainly economic and political), and the framing within their experiences of mobility towards Southern Europe. Putting these issues into perspective can be useful for the reflection about policies addressed to environmental migrations, which will be reviewed in this paper, highlighting some gaps between global political aims and meanings of mobility and the environment for migrants and refugees.

Keywords

Africa Europe Environmental migrations Migrants and refugees Policy development Qualitative research 

References

  1. Baptista, L. (2012). Le monde des mobilités. Globalisation, territoire et capital de mobilité. In Diogo, F., Gonçalves, R. & Tomás, L. (Dir.) Les nouvelles configurations de la mobilité humaine (pp. 15–23). Fribourg, Switzerland: Academic Press Fribourg.Google Scholar
  2. Bardin, L. (2004). Análise de conteúdo, Edições 70, Lisbon, Portugal.Google Scholar
  3. Beck, U. (2015). Sociedade do risco mundial: em busca da segurança perdida, Edições 70, Lisbon, Portugal.Google Scholar
  4. Black, R., Adger, W., Arnell, N., Dercon, S., Geddes, A., & Thomas, D. (2011). The effect of environmental change on human migration. Global Environmental Change, 21S, S3–S11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Castles, S., Haas, H., & Miller, M. (2014). The age of migration International population movements in the modern world (5th ed.). Hampshire, United Kingdom & New York, USA: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  6. Catton, W., & Dunlap, R. (1978). Environmental sociology: A new paradigm. The American Sociologist, 13, 41–49.Google Scholar
  7. Cresswell, T. (2006). On the move: Mobility in the modern western world. London, United Kingdom: Routledge.Google Scholar
  8. Farbotko, C., & Lazrus, H. (2012). The first climate refugees? Contesting global narratives of climate change in Tuvalu. Global Environmental Change, 22(2), 382–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ferrarotti, F. (2011). L’empatia creatrice. Potere, autorità e formazione umana, Rome, Italy: Armando Editore.Google Scholar
  10. Foresight. (2011). Foresight: Migration and global environmental change. Final Project Report, The Government Office for Science, London, United Kingdom.Google Scholar
  11. Giddens, A. (2015). The politics of climate change (2nd ed.). Polity, Cambridge, United Kingdom & Malden MA, USA.Google Scholar
  12. Haas, H. (2016). Refugees: A small and relatively stable proportion of world migration. Blog Hein de Haas. http://heindehaas.blogspot.pt/2016/08/refugees-small-and-relatively-stable.html. Accessed 21 April 2017
  13. Hajer, M. (1995). The politics of environmental discourse: Ecological modernization and the policy process. New York, USA: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Hawley, A. (1950). Human ecology: A theory of community structure, New York, USA: Ronald Press Co.Google Scholar
  15. IPCC. (2014). 12.4 migration and mobility dimensions of human security. In IPCC Fifth Assessment Report 2014, WP2 II ‘Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability’. https://www.ipcc.ch/report/ar5/. Accessed 6 Jan 2015.
  16. Ionesco, D., Mokhnacheva, D. & Gemenne, F. (2016). Atlas des Migrations Environnementales, Paris, France: SciencesPo/IOM.Google Scholar
  17. Kaufmann, V., Bergman, M., & Joye, D. (2004). Motility: Mobility as capital. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 28(4), 745–756.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. King, R., Black, R., Collyer, M., Fielding, A., & Skeldon, R. (2010). The atlas of human migration, global patterns of people on the move. Brighton, United Kigdom: Earthscan.Google Scholar
  19. Mazzella, S. (2014). Sociologie des Migrations, Col. ‘Que sais-je?’. Paris, France: Presses Universitaires de France.Google Scholar
  20. Mortreux, C., & Barnett, J. (2009). Climate change, migration and adaptation in Funafuti, Tuvalu. Global Environmental Change, 16(1), 105–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Park, R., Burgess, E., & McKenzie, R. (1992). The city—Suggestions for investigation of human behavior in the urban environment. USA: The University of Chicago Press Chicago.Google Scholar
  22. Quivy, R., & Campenhoudt, L. (2008). Manual de Investigação em Ciências Sociais, Gradiva, Lisbon, Portugal.Google Scholar
  23. Sheller, M., & Urry, J. (2006). The new mobilities paradigm. Environment and Planning A, 38, 207–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. UN. (2016). New York declaration for refugees and migrants. Draft resolution referred to the high-level plenary meeting on addressing large movements of refugees and migrants by the General Assembly at its seventieth session. http://www.un.org/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/71/L.1. Accessed 16 June 2017.
  25. UNCCD. (2016). Report of the Conference of the Parties on its twelfth session, held in Ankara from 12 to 23 October 2015. http://www.unccd.int/Lists/OfficialDocuments/cop12/20add1eng.pdf. Accessed 27 Feb 2017.
  26. UNFCCC. (2011). Report of the Conference of the Parties on its sixteenth session, held in Cancun from 29 November to 10 December 2010. https://unfccc.int/resource/docs/2010/cop16/eng/07a01.pdf. Accessed 27 Feb 2017.
  27. UNFCCC. (2015a). Paris Agreement. Authentic text. http://unfccc.int/files/essential_background/convention/application/pdf/english_paris_agreement.pdf. Accessed 16 June 2017.
  28. UNFCCC. (2015b). Report of the executive committee of the Warsaw International Mechanism for loss and damage associated with climate change impacts. http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/2015/sb/eng/03.pdf. Accessed 27 Feb 2017.
  29. Urry, J. (1995). Consuming places. London, United Kingdom & New York, USA: Routledge.Google Scholar
  30. Urry, J. (2007). Mobilities, polity. Cambridge, USA: United Kingdom & Malden MA.Google Scholar
  31. Vieira, I. (2010). Migrações e ambiente. Imigrantes ambientais no contexto europeu, Master Thesis (Project Work) on Human Ecology and Contemporary Social Problems, FCSH/NOVA, Lisbon, Portugal.Google Scholar
  32. Wirth, L. (1938). Urbanism as a way of life. In LeGates, R. & Stout, F. (Eds.), (1996) The city reader. London, United Kigdom & New York, USA: Routledge.Google Scholar
  33. Yearley, S. (2009). Cultures of environmentalism. Empirical studies in environmental sociology. Hampshire, United Kingdom & New York, USA: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Human Ecology, CICS.NOVAInterdisciplinary Centre of Social SciencesLisbonPortugal

Personalised recommendations