• Juan Francisco Escudero Espinosa


Twenty-five years after the historic adoption of Resolution 678 (1990) by the Security Council with the co-operation of all the permanent Member States so as to confront the invasion of Kuwait by Iraq, it would appear that dissent has raised its head once more among Members. That was the first time that authority was given to Member States ‘to use all necessary means […] to restore international peace and security’. Among many others, it was followed by Resolution 688 (1991), which attempted ‘to address urgently the critical needs of the refugees and displaced Iraqi populations’. The Yalta Conference of February 1945 laid down the broad lines for today’s Europe, recognizing an international status for the Ukraine, but also bringing the start of the Cold War. Within this same framework antagonism seems to be emerging in the shape of indignant Russian actions triggered by an aggressive Western stance, so characteristic of what some authors interpret as a return to realpolitik.


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Authors and Affiliations

  • Juan Francisco Escudero Espinosa
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of LawUniversity of LeonLeonSpain

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