The Crimea’s Declaration of Independence and Annexation to Russia in 2014

  • Juan Francisco Escudero Espinosa
Chapter

Abstract

Historically, Crimea is one of the cradles of Russian origin and identity, the site of Russian military glories and tragedies, a centre of cultural renewal, occupying a special place in the Russian heart. Within the turbulent history of the region, the ceding at the behest of the Ukrainian Nikita Khrushchev of the Crimean Oblast to the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic on 19 February 1954 may be seen as one of the roots of the present crisis in the Ukraine with regard to Crimea.

References

  1. Arcari, M. 2014. Violazione del divieto di uso della forza, aggressione o attacco armato in relazione all’intervento militare della Russia in Crimea? DUDI 8: 473–479.Google Scholar
  2. Armandon, E. 2013. La Crimée entre la Russie et Ukraine. Un conflit qui n’a pas eu lieu. Bruxelles: Bruylant.Google Scholar
  3. Åslund, A. 2015. Ukraine: What Went Wrong and How to Fix It. Washington: Peterson Institute for International Economics.Google Scholar
  4. Åslund, A., and M. McFaul, eds. 2006. Revolution in Orange: The Origins of Ukraine’s Democratic Breakthrough. Washington: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.Google Scholar
  5. Ayres, S. 2014. Is it too late for Kiev to woo Russian-speaking Ukraine?. The Christian Science Monitor, February 28. http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Europe/2014/0228/Is-it-too-late-for-Kiev-to-woo-Russian-speaking-Ukraine.
  6. Basarab, J. 1982. Pereislav 1654: A Historiographical Study. Edmonton: Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies, University of Alberta.Google Scholar
  7. Beissinger, M.R. 2002. Nationalist Mobilization and the Collapse of the Soviet State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bismuth, R. 2014. Odysée dans le conundrum des réactions décentralisées à l’illicite. JDI 141: 719–731.Google Scholar
  9. Bowring, B. 2005. The Crimean Autonomy: Innovation or Anomaly. In Autonomy, Self-Governance and Conflict Resolution, ed. M. Weller and S. Wolff, 75–97. London; New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  10. Buffa, D.G. 2010. A Proposed Remedy for the Dilemma of Innumerable Futures: Ukraine, Russia, and NATO Membership. Brook. J. Int’l L. 35: 593–626.Google Scholar
  11. Calamur, K. 2014. Crimea: A Gift to Ukraine Becomes a Political Flash Point’. NPR, February, 27. http://www.npr.org/sections/parallels/2014/02/27/283481587/crimea-a-gift-to-ukraine-becomes-a-political-flash-point.
  12. Christakis, T. 2014. Les conflits de sécession en Crimée et dans l’Est de l’Ukraine et le droit international (The Conflicts of Secession in Crimea and Eastern Ukraine and International Law). JDI 141: 733–764.Google Scholar
  13. Cimiotta, E. 2014. Le reazioni alla ‘sottrazione’ della Crimea all’Ucraina. Quali garanzie del diritto internazionale di fronte a gravi illeciti imputati a grandi potenze? DUDI 8: 491–504.Google Scholar
  14. D’Anieri, P., R. Kravchuk, and T. Kuzio, eds. 1999. Politics and Society in Ukraine. Boulder: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  15. Delahunty, R. 2015. The Crimean Crisis, Legal Studies Research Paper Series. University of St. Thomas Journal of Law and Public Policy 9: 125–168.Google Scholar
  16. Dmitriev, Y.A. 2014. Crimea as a Bone of Contention Between Russia, the European Union and the USA. ПРАВО И ЖИЗНЬ Независимый научно-правовой журнал 189: 22–50.Google Scholar
  17. Douhan, A.F. 2015. International Organizations and Settlement of the Conflict in Ukraine. ZaöRV/HJIL 75: 195–214.Google Scholar
  18. Evers, F. 2010. Damaged Prospects/Damaged Dialogue in Ukraine and Crimea. The Current Situation in Ukraine and Future Co-operation with the OSCE. OSCE Yearbook 16: 221–243.Google Scholar
  19. Feldhusen, A. 1999. ‘The ‘Russian Factor’ in Ukrainian Foreign Policy’. Fletcher Forum of World Affairs 23 (2): 119–138.Google Scholar
  20. Gartnett, S.W. 1997. The Keystone in the Arch: Ukraine in the Emerging Security Environment of Central and Eastern Europe. Washington, D.C.: The Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.Google Scholar
  21. Gordon, M.R. 1997. Russia and Ukraine Finally Reach Accord on Black Sea Fleet. The New York Times, May 29. http://www.nytimes.com/1997/05/29/world/russia-and-ukraine-finally-reach-accord-on-black-sea-fleet.html.
  22. Gorizontov, L.E. 2012. The Crimean War as a Test of Russia’s Imperial Durability. Russian Studies in History 51: 65–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Grewe, W.G., ed. 1992. Fontes Historiae Iuris Gentium. Quellen zur Geschichte des Völkerrechts/Sources Relating to the History of the Law of Nations. Berlin; New York: Walter de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  24. Harasymiw, B. 2002. Post-Communist Ukraine. Edmonton: Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies Press.Google Scholar
  25. ———. 2003. Policing, Democratization and Political Leadership in Postcommunist Ukraine. Canadian Journal of Political Science/Revue canadienne de science politique 36: 319–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Herron, E.S. 2009. State Institutions, Political Context and Parliamentary Election Legislation in Ukraine, 2000–2006. In Democratic Revolution in Ukraine: From Kuchmagate to Orange Revolution, ed. T. Kuzio, 58–77. London; New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  27. Herszenhorn, D.M. 2014. Crimea Votes to Secede From Ukraine as Russian Troops Keep Watch. The New York Times, March 16. http://www.nytimes.com/2014/03/17/world/europe/crimea-ukraine-secession-vote-referendum.html.
  28. Herszenhorn, D.M., and A. Cowell. 2014. Lawmakers in Crimea Move Swiftly to Split From Ukraine. The New York Times, March 17. http://www.nytimes.com/2014/03/18/world/europe/european-union-ukraine.html?hpw&rref=world&_r=1.
  29. Herszenhorn, D.M., and A.E. Kramer. 2014. Ukraine Plans to Withdraw Troops from Russia-Occupied Crimea. The New York Times, March 19. http://www.nytimes.com/2014/03/20/world/europe/crimea.html.
  30. Herszenhorn, D.M., P. Reevell, and N. Sneider. 2014. Russian Forces Take Over One of the Last Ukrainan Bases in Crimea. The New York Times, March 22. http://www.nytimes.com/2014/03/23/world/europe/ukraine.html?_r=0.
  31. Hilpold, P. 2015. Ukraine, Crimea and New International Law: Balancing International Law with Arguments Drawn from History. Chinese JIL 14: 237–270.Google Scholar
  32. Hoffman, F.G. 2007. Conflict in the 21 st Century: The Rise of Hybrid Wars. Arlington, VA: Potomac Institute for Policy Studies.Google Scholar
  33. Jaworsky, J. 1995. Crimea’s Importance to Ukraine and its Future Security. In Crimea: Dynamics, Challenges and Prospects, ed. M. Drohobycky, 135–156. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  34. Karatnycky, A. 2005. Ukraine’s Orange Revolution. Foreign Affairs 84: 35–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kuruneri-Millet, A. 2014. 2014: l’Ukraine à la croisée des chemins. Déf. Nat. 769: 11–16.Google Scholar
  36. Kuzio, T. 1995. Ukrainian Security Policy. Westport, CT, London: Praeger.Google Scholar
  37. ———. 2005. From Kuchma to Yushchenko. Ukraine’s 2004 Presidential Elections and the Orange Revolution. Problems of Post-Communism 52: 29–44.Google Scholar
  38. ———. 2007. Oligarchs, Tapes and Oranges: ‘Kuchmagate’ to the Orange Revolution. Journal of Communist Studies and Transition Politics 23: 30–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. ———. 2012. Russianization of Ukrainian National Security Policy under Viktor Yanukovych. The Journal of Slavic Military Studies 25: 558–581.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Lagerwall, A. 2014. L’agression et l’annexion de la Crimée para la Fédération de Russie: Quels enseignements au sujet du droit international. Questions of International Law, Zoom Out I 57–72. www.qil-qdi.org.
  41. Luchterhandt, O. 2014. Der Anschluss der Krim an Russland aus völkerrechtlicher Sicht. Archiv des Völkerrecht 52: 137–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Mantovani, M., and D. Rickenbacher. 2014. Crimea Going East - A Clash of Great Power Strategies. ML & LWR 53: 45–68.Google Scholar
  43. Martucci, F. 2014. La réaction multidimensionnelle de l’Union européenne dans la crise ukrainienne. JDI 141: 765–785.Google Scholar
  44. Marxsen, C. 2014. The Crimea Crisis - An International Law Perspective. ZaöRV/HJIL 74: 367–391.Google Scholar
  45. Merezhko, O. 2015. Crimea’s Annexation by Russia – Contradictions of the New Russian Doctrine of International Law. ZaöRV/HJIL 75: 167–194.Google Scholar
  46. Milano, E. 2014. The Non-Recognition of Russia’s Annexation of Crimea: Three Different Legal Approaches and One Unanswered Question. Questions of International Law, Zoom Out I 35–55. www.qil-qdi.org.
  47. Nahaylo, B. 1999. The Ukrainian Resurgence. London: Hurst & Co.Google Scholar
  48. NATO. 2006. Handbook. Brussels: Public Diplomacy Division. http://www.nato.int/docu/handbook/2006/hb-en-2006.pdf.
  49. Ohloblyn, O. 1954. Treaty of Pereyaslav, 1654. Toronto: Canadian League for Ukraine's Liberation, Organization for Defence of Four Freedoms for Ukraine.Google Scholar
  50. Olson, P.M. 2014. The Lawfulness of Use of Force in Crimea. ML & LWR 53: 17–44.Google Scholar
  51. Perpetua, S. 2014. Parliament Votes to Dismiss Yanukovych. The New York Times, February 22. http://www.nytimes.com/video/world/europe/100000002728851/parliament-votes-to-dismiss-yanukovych.html.
  52. Prokopovych, V. 1955. The Problem of the Juridical Nature of the Ukraine’s Union with Muscovy. Annals of the Ukrainian Academy of Arts and Sciences in the United States 4: 926–946.Google Scholar
  53. Pronin, A. 2015. Republic of Crimea A Two-Day State. Russian LJ 3: 133–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Reeves, S.R., and D.A. Wallace. 2015. The Combatant Status of the Little Green Men and Other Participants in the Ukraine Conflict. International Law Studies 91: 361–401.Google Scholar
  55. Rudnytsky, I.L. 1954. Status of the Crimea; Recent Move is Seen as Concession to Ukraine Demand. The New York Times, March 16.Google Scholar
  56. Ruys, T., and N. Verlinden. 2014. Digest of State Practice 1 January – 30 June 2014. JUFIL 1: 324–340.Google Scholar
  57. Saluschev, S. 2014. Annexation of Crimea: Causes, Analysis & Global Implications. Global Societies Journal 2: 37–46.Google Scholar
  58. Schmemann, S. 1992a. Crimea Parliament Votes to Back Independent from Ukraine. The New York Times, May 6. http://www.nytimes.com/1992/05/06/world/crimea-parliament-votes-to-back-independence-from-ukraine.html.
  59. ———. 1992b. Russia Votes to Void Cession of Crimea to Ukraine. The New York Times, May 22. http://www.nytimes.com/1992/05/22/world/russia-votes-to-void-cession-of-crimea-to-ukraine.html.
  60. Schroefl, J., and S.J. Kaufman. 2014. Hybrid Actors, Tactical Variety: Rethinking Asymmetric and Hybrid War. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 37: 862–880.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Schwartz, H. 1954. Concession to the Ukraine. The New York Times, February 27.Google Scholar
  62. Sciso, E. 2014. La crisi ucraina e lintervento russo: profile di diritto internazionale. RDI 97: 992–1031.Google Scholar
  63. Shevchenko, V. 2014. ‘Little green men’ or ‘Russian invaders’? BBC News March 11. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-26532154.
  64. Smale, A., and S. Erlanger. 2014. Ukraine Mobilizes Reserve Troops, Threatening War. The New York Times, March 1. http://www.nytimes.com/2014/03/02/world/europe/ukraine.html.
  65. Solchanyk, R. 1995. Crimea: Between Ukraine and Russia. In Crimea: Dynamics, Challenges and Prospects, ed. M. Drohobycky, 3–13. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  66. Specter, M. 1997. Setting Past Aside, Russia and Ukraine Sign Friendship Treaty. The New York Times, June 1. http://www.nytimes.com/1997/06/01/world/setting-past-aside-russia-and-ukraine-sign-friendship-treaty.html.
  67. Stewart, D.B. 1997. The Russian-Ukrainian Friendship Treaty and the Search for Regional Stability in Eastern Europe. Monterey, CA: Naval Postgraduate School. Thesis.Google Scholar
  68. Subtelny, O. 2000. Ukraine: A History. Toronto: Toronto University Press.Google Scholar
  69. Swetnam, M. 2007. Foreword. In Conflict in the 21 st Century: The Rise of Hybrid Wars, ed. F.G. Hoffman, 5–6. Arlington, VA: Potomac Institute for Policy Studies. http://www.potomacinstitute.org/images/stories/publications/potomac_hybridwar_0108.pdf.
  70. Tancredi, A. 2014a. Crisi in Crimea, referéndum ed autodeterminazione dei popoli. DUDI 8: 480–490.Google Scholar
  71. ———. 2014c. The Russian Annexation of the Crimea: Questions Relating to the Use of Force. Questions of International Law, Zoom Out I 5–34. www.qil-qdi.org.
  72. Taylor, A. 2014. To understand Crimea, take a look back at its complicated history. The Washington Post, February, 27. http://www.washington.com.
  73. The Crimea: Chronicle of Separatism (1992–1995). 1996. Kiev: Ukrainian Centre for Independent Political Research.Google Scholar
  74. Ukrainian Canadian Committee. 1954. Bastion of Resistance: Comments on the Treaty of Pereyaslav between Ukraine and Russia. Winnipeg: Ukrainian Canadian Committee.Google Scholar
  75. Urquhart, C. 2014. Ukraine MPs appoint interim president as Yanukovych allies dismissed – 23 Februray as it happened. The Guardian, February 23. http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/feb/23/ukraine-crisis-yanukovych-tymoshenko-live-updates.
  76. Van den Driest, S.F. 2015. Crimea’s Separation from Ukraine: An Analysis of the Right to Self-Determination and (Remedial) Secession in International Law. NILR 62: 329–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Vasiliev, A. 2014. The Crimean ‘Army’. Open Democracy website. March, 14. http://www.opendemocracy.net/od-russia/andrei-vasiliev/crimean-%E2%80%98army%E2%80%99.
  78. Von Todleben, F.E. 1863. Défense de Sébastopol. Saint-Petersburg: N. Thieblin.Google Scholar
  79. Wilson, A. 2005. Ukraine’s Orange Revolution. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  80. ———. 2014. Ukraine Crisis: What It Means for the West. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  81. ———. 2015. The Ukrainians: Unexpected Nation ([S.l.]: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  82. Wolczuk, K. 2002. Catching up with Europe? Constitutional Debates on the Territorial-Administrative Model in Independent Ukraine. Regional & Federal Studies 12: 65–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Wydra, D. 2004. The Crimea Conundrum: The Tug of War Between Russia and Ukraine on the Questions of Autonomy and Self-Determination. IJGR 10: 111–130.Google Scholar
  84. Yekelchyk, S. 2007. Ukraine: Birth of a Modern Nation. New York; Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  85. Zlenko, A.M. 1997. Foreign Policy Interests of Ukraine and Problems of European Security. Fordham Int’l L.J. 21: 45–64.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Juan Francisco Escudero Espinosa
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of LawUniversity of LeonLeonSpain

Personalised recommendations