A New Theoretical Framework for Testing Consciousness in a Machine

  • Azree Nazri
  • Abdul Azim Abd Ghani
  • Izuan Hafez
  • Keng-Yap Ng
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 700)


The major aim of artificial general intelligence’s (AGI) is to allow a machine to perform general intelligence tasks similar to human counterparts. Hypothetically, this general intelligence in a machine can be achieved by establishing cross-domain optimization and learning machine approaches. However, contemporary artificial intelligence (AI) capabilities are only limited to narrow and specific domains utilizing machine learning. Consciousness concept is particularly interesting topic to attain the approaches because it simultaneously encodes and processes all types of information and seamlessly integrates them. Over the last several years, there has been a resurgence of interest in testing theories of consciousness using computer models. The studies of these models are classified into four categories: external behavior associated with consciousness, cognitive characteristics associated with consciousness, a computational architecture correlate of human consciousness and phenomenally of conscious machine. The critical challenge is to determine whether these artificial systems are capable of conscious states by providing a measurement the extent to which the systems are succeeded in realizing consciousness in a machine. Several tests for machine consciousness have been proposed yet their formulation is based on extrinsic measurement of consciousness. Yet extrinsic measurement is not inclusive because many conscious artificial systems behave implicitly. This research proposes a new framework to test machine consciousness based on intrinsic measurement so-called Pak Pandir test. The framework leverages three quantum double-slit settings and information integration theory as consciousness definition of choice.


Turing test Artificial intelligence Artificial general intelligence Pak Pandir Consciousness Machine consciousness 


  1. 1.
    Aleksander, I., Burnett, P.: Thinking machines : the search for artificial intelligence. Knopf (1987)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Tononi, G.: An information integration theory of consciousness. BMC Neurosci. 5(1), 42 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Tononi, G.: Consciousness as integrated information: a provisional manifesto. Biol. Bull. 215(3), 216–242 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Brooks, R.A., Breazeal, C., Marjanović, M., Scassellati, B., Williamson, M.M.: The Cog project: building a humanoid robot, pp. 52–87 (1999)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dennett, D.C.: Consciousness in human and robot minds. Cogn. Comput. Conscious. 1, 1–10 (1994)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dehaene, S., Kerszberg, M., Changeux, J.-P.: A neuronal model of a global workspace in effortful cognitive tasks. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 95(24), 14529–14534 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Steels, L.: Language games for autonomous robots. Intell. Syst. IEEE 16(5), 16–22 (2001)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Steels, L.: Language re-entrance and the ‘inner voice’. J. Conscious. Stud. 10(4), 173–185 (2003)MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Clowes, R.: The problem of inner speech and its relation to the organization of conscious experience: a self-regulation model. In: Proceedings AISB06 Symposium Integrative Approaches to Machine Consciousness, pp. 117–126 (2006)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Haikonen, P.O.: The cognitive approach to conscious machines (2003)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Samsonovich, A., DeJong, K.: A general-purpose computational model of the conscious mind. In: ICCM—Six International Conference Cognitive Model, pp. 382–383 (2004)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Chella, A., Macaluso, I.: Sensations and perceptions in Cicerobot, a museum guide robotGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Holland, O., Goodman, R.: Robots with internal models a route to machine consciousness? J. Conscious. Stud. 10(4), 77–109 (2003)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Stening, J., Jacobsson, H., Ziemke, T.: Imagination and abstraction of sensorimotor flow: towards a robot model. In: Proceedings of the Symposium on Next Generation Approaches to Machine Consciousness: Imagination, Development, Intersubjectivity and Embodiment, pp. 50–58 (2005)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Cotterill, R.M.J.: CyberChild a simulation test-bed for consciousness studies. J. Conscious. Stud. 10(4–5), 31–45 (2003)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sloman, A., Chrisley, R.: Virtual machines and consciousness. J. Conscious. Stud. 10(4–5), 133–172 (2003)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Baars, B.J., Franklin, S.: Consciousness is computational: the lida model of global workspace theory. Int. J. Mach. Conscious. 1(1), 23–32 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Taylor, J.G.: Beyond consciousness? Int. J. Mach. Conscious. 1(1), 11–21 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Chrisley, R.: Philosophical foundations of artificial consciousness. Artif. Intell. Med. 44(2), 119–137 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Haikonen, P.O.A.: Reflections of consciousness: the mirror test. Proc. 2007 AAAI Fall Symp. Conscious. 9(4), 67–71 (2007)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sun, R.: Learning, action and consciousness: a hybrid approach toward modelling consciousness. Neural Netw. 10(7), 1317–1331 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Velmans, M.: Making sense of causal interactions between consciousness and brain: reply. J. Conscious. Stud. 9(11), 69–95 (2002)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Anderson, M.L.: Circuit sharing and the implementation of intelligent systems. Conn. Sci. 20(4), 239–251 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Torey, Z.L.: The immaculate misconception. J. Conscious. Stud. 13(12), 105–110 (2006)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Browne, C., Evans, R., Sales, N., Aleksander, I.: Consciousness and neural cognizers: a review of some recent approaches. Neural Netw. 10(7), 1303–1316 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    The virtues of virtual machines—Google Scholar. Accessed 04 Oct 2017
  27. 27.
    Van de Voorde, P., et al.: Assessing the level of consciousness in children: a plea for the glasgow coma motor subscore. Resuscitation 76(2), 175–179 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Fenigstein, A., Scheier, M.F., Buss, A.H.: Public and private self-consciousness: assessment and theory. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 43(4), 522–527 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Lewis, M.: The emergence of consciousness and its role in human development. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1001, 104–133 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Azree Nazri
    • 1
  • Abdul Azim Abd Ghani
    • 1
  • Izuan Hafez
    • 1
  • Keng-Yap Ng
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Computer Science and Information TechnologyUniversiti Putra MalaysiaSerdangMalaysia

Personalised recommendations