Advertisement

Developmental Education: The Evolution of Research and Reform

  • Shanna Smith Jaggars
  • Susan Bickerstaff
Chapter
Part of the Higher Education: Handbook of Theory and Research book series (HATR, volume 33)

Abstract

Almost two-thirds of entering community college students and over one-third of students entering less-selective four year colleges are judged as lacking in the math and language skills necessary for success in college-level courses. Traditionally, these students have been referred to “remedial” or “developmental education” programs, which are designed to bring students’ math, reading, and writing skills up to the college’s expectations of entry-level students. Unfortunately, however, the vast majority of students referred to traditional developmental education sequences never complete these requirements. In response, states, college systems, and individual institutions have embarked on a wide array of reform efforts focused on increasing the accuracy of systems that place students into developmental education, accelerating student progress into college-level coursework, and improving the instruction and student supports for underprepared students. In this chapter, we review the traditional system’s structure and effectiveness and provide a history of first, second, and third-wave reforms and research on those approaches. This chapter also delineates the teaching and learning issues that must be addressed in order to further advance the reform movement, and discusses areas for future research.

Keywords

Achieving the Dream (ATD) ACT Accelerated Learning Program (ALP) Accelerated Studies in Associate Programs (ASAP) California Acceleration Project (CAP) Carnegie Foundation City University of New York (CUNY) Contextualized instruction COMPASS Co-requisite coursework Developmental Education ETS Guided pathways Guttman Community College I-BEST Long Beach City College Mathematics pathways (e.g., Statway, Quantway) Multiple Measures Placement Exams Regression Discontinuity Remedial Students Underprepared Students 

References

  1. ACT, Inc. (2006). COMPASS/ESL reference manual. Iowa City, IA: Author.Google Scholar
  2. Adams, P., Gearhart, S., Miller, R., & Roberts, A. (2009). The accelerated learning program: Throwing open the gates. Journal of Basic Writing, 28(2), 50–69.Google Scholar
  3. Allen, D. (2015). Understanding multiple developmental education pathways for underrepresented student populations: Findings from New York City. PhD dissertation, New York University.Google Scholar
  4. Ambrose, S. A., Bridges, M. W., DiPietro, M., Lovett, M. C., & Norman, M. K. (2010). How learning works: 7 research-based principles for smart teaching. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  5. Applebee, A. N., & Langer, J. A. (2011). A snapshot of writing instruction in middle schools and high schools. English Journal, 100(6), 14–27.Google Scholar
  6. Ariovich, L., & Walker, S. (2014). Assessing course redesign: The case of developmental math. Research and Practice in Assessment, 9, 45–57.Google Scholar
  7. Armstrong, S., Stahl, N., & Kantner, J. (2015). Investigating academic literacy expectations: A curriculum audit model. Journal of Developmental Education, 38, 2–8.Google Scholar
  8. Attewell, P., Lavin, D., Domina, T., & Levey, T. (2006). New evidence on college remediation. Journal of Higher Education, 77(5), 886–924.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bahr, P. R. (2010). Revisiting the efficacy of postsecondary remediation: The moderating effects of depth/breadth of deficiency. Review of Higher Education, 33, 177–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bailey, T., Bashford, J., Boatman, A., Squires, J., Weiss, M., Doyle, W., et al. (2016). Strategies for postsecondary students in developmental education – A practice guide for college and university administrators, advisors, and faculty. Washington, DC: Institute of Education Sciences, What Works Clearinghouse.Google Scholar
  11. Bailey, T., Chapman, L., Burleson, S., & Bowling, E. (2015, April 19). Multiple measures for placement: Expanding policies to promote student success. Presentation at the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) Annual Convention, San Antonio, TX.Google Scholar
  12. Bailey, T., Jaggars, S. S., & Jenkins, D. (2015). Redesigning America’s community colleges: A clearer path to success. Boston: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bailey, T., Jaggars, S. S., & Scott-Clayton, J. (2013). Commentary: Characterizing the effectiveness of developmental education: A response to recent criticism. Journal of Developmental Education, 36(3), 18–25.Google Scholar
  14. Bailey, T., Jeong, D., & Cho, S. (2010). Referral, enrollment, and completion in developmental education sequences in community colleges. Economics of Education Review, 29(2), 255–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Barnett, E. A., Bork, R. H., Mayer, A. K., Pretlow, J., Wathington, H., & Trimble, M. J. (2012). Bridging the gap: An impact study of eight developmental summer bridge programs in Texas. New York: National Center for Postsecondary Research.Google Scholar
  16. Barnett, E. A., & Reddy, V. (2017). College placement strategies: Evolving considerations and practices. New York: Center for the Analysis of Postsecondary Research.Google Scholar
  17. Barragan, M., & Cormier, M. S. (2013). Enhancing rigor in developmental education (Inside Out series publication). New York: Community College Research Center.Google Scholar
  18. Bettinger, E. P., & Long, B. T. (2003). The effects of remediation on student outcomes: The plight of underprepared students in higher education. Cleveland, OH: Case Western University.Google Scholar
  19. Bettinger, E. P., & Long, B. T. (2009). Addressing the needs of underprepared students in higher education: Does college remediation work? Journal of Human Resources, 44(3), 736–771.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bickerstaff, S., Fay, M. & Trimble, M. (2016). Modularization in developmental mathematics in two states: Implementation and early outcomes (Working Paper No. 87). New York: Community College Research Center.Google Scholar
  21. Bickerstaff, S., Lontz, B., Cormier, M. S., & Xu, D. (2014). Redesigning arithmetic for student success: Supporting faculty to teach in new ways. New Directions for Community Colleges, 2014(167), 5–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Blake, M., Mrkich, S., Sancak-Marusa, I., Philippakos, Z., & MacArthur, C. (2016). Self-regulated strategy instruction in developmental writing courses: How to help basic writers become independent writers. Teaching English in the Two-Year College, 44, 2.Google Scholar
  23. Boatman, A. (2012). Evaluating institutional efforts to streamline postsecondary remediation: The causal effects of the Tennessee developmental course redesign initiative on early student academic success. New York: National Center for Postsecondary Research. Retrieved from: http://www.postsecondaryresearch.org/i/a/document/22651_BoatmanTNFINAL.pdf Google Scholar
  24. Boatman, A., & Long, B. T. (2010). Does remediation work for all students? How the effects of postsecondary remedial and developmental courses vary by level of academic preparation (NCPR working paper). New York: National Center for Postsecondary Research.Google Scholar
  25. Bol, L., Campbell, K., Perez, T., & Yen, C. (2015). The effects of self-regulated learning training on community college students' metacognition and achievement in developmental math courses. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 40, 482–495.Google Scholar
  26. Bowen, W. G., Chingos, M. M., & McPherson, M. S. (2009). Crossing the finish line: Completing college at America’s public universities. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Boylan, H. (1995). The scope of developmental education. Research in Developmental Education, 12(4), 1–4.Google Scholar
  28. Boylan, H. R., Bliss, L. B., & Bonham, B. S. (1997). Program components and their relationship to student performance. Journal of Developmental Education, 20(3), 2–7.Google Scholar
  29. Bragg, D., Baker, E., & Puryear, M. (2010). Follow-up of the Community College of Denver FastStart program. Chicago: Office of Community College Research and Leadership.Google Scholar
  30. Bragg, D. D., & Barnett, E. A. (2008). Final report of the Charles Stewart Mott Breaking Through initiative.. Retrieved from: http://occrl.illinois.edu/docs/librariesprovider4/breaking-through/final-report-breaking-through.pdf?sfvrsn=8
  31. Bryk, A. S., Gomez, L. M., & Grunow, A. (2010). Getting ideas into action: Building networked improvement communities in education. Stanford, CA: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.Google Scholar
  32. Butrymowicz, S. (2016). Remedial classes are a huge stumbling block on the way to a degree. That’s why this community college doesn’t have them (The Hechinger Report). Retrieved from: http://hechingerreport.org/remedial-classes-huge-stumbling-block-way-degree-thats-community-college-got-rid/
  33. Calcagno, J. C., & Long, B. (2008). The impact of postsecondary remediation using a regression discontinuity approach: Addressing endogenous sorting and noncompliance (NBER Working Paper No. 14194). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.Google Scholar
  34. Cantrell, S. C., Correll, P., Clouse, P., Creech, K., Bridges, S., & Owens, D. (2013). Patterns of self efficacy among students in developmental reading. Journal of College Reading and Learning, 44, 8–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Caverly, D. C., Nicholson, S. A., & Radcliife, R. (2004). The effectiveness of strategic reading instruction for college developmental readers. Journal of College Reading and Learning, 35(1), 25–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Center for Community College Student Engagement. (2012). A matter of degrees: Promising practices for community college student success (A first look). Austin, TX: University of Texas at Austin, Community College Leadership Program.Google Scholar
  37. Chen, X. & Simone, S. (2016). Remedial coursetaking at U.S. public 2- and 4-Year institutions: Scope, experiences, and outcomes (NCES 2016-405). U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC: National Center for Education StatisticsGoogle Scholar
  38. Cho, S., Kopko, E., Jenkins, D., & Jaggars, S. S. (2012). New evidence of success for community college remedial English students: Tracking the outcomes of students in the Accelerated Learning Program (ALP) (Working Paper No. 53). New York: Community College Research Center.Google Scholar
  39. Clyburn, G. (2013). Improving on the American dream: Mathematics pathways to student success. Change: The Magazine of Higher Learning, 45(50), 1–8.Google Scholar
  40. Coburn, C. (2003). Rethinking scale: Moving beyond numbers to deep and lasting change. Educational Researcher, 32(6), 3–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Complete College America. (2016). Corequisite remediation: Spanning the completion divide. Retrieved from: http://completecollege.org/spanningthedivide/
  42. Conley, D. T. (2010). College and career ready: Helping all students succeed beyond high school. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Cox, R. D. (2009). The college fear factor: How students and professors misunderstand one another. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Dadgar, M. (2012). Essays on the economics of community college students’ academic and labor market success. Doctoral dissertation. Retrieved from ProQuest dissertations and theses database (Order No. 1014168985).Google Scholar
  45. Dweck, C. (2006). Mindset: The new psychology of success. New York: Ballantine Books.Google Scholar
  46. Edgecombe, N. (2011). Accelerating the academic achievement of students referred to developmental education. New York: Community College Research Center.Google Scholar
  47. Edgecombe, N., Cormier, M. S., Bickerstaff, S., & Barragan, M. (2013). Strengthening developmental education reforms: Evidence on implementation efforts from the scaling innovation project. New York: Community College Research Center.Google Scholar
  48. Edgecombe, N., Jaggars, S. S., Baker, E. D., & Bailey, T. (2013). Acceleration through a holistic support model: An implementation and outcomes analysis of FastStart@CCD. New York: Community College Research Center.Google Scholar
  49. Edgecombe, N., Jaggars, S. S., Xu, D., & Barragan, M. (2014). Accelerating the integrated instruction of developmental reading and writing at Chabot College. New York: Community College Research Center.Google Scholar
  50. Fain, P. (2011, December 23). Letting go of lecture. Inside Higher Ed.. Retrieved from: https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2011/12/23/montgomery-college-follows-remedial-math-revolution
  51. Fain, P. (2013, September 13). Going to the root of the problem. Inside Higher Ed. Retrieved from: https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2013/09/13/promising-remedial-math-reform-tennessee-expands
  52. Fay, M. P. (2017). Computer-mediated developmental math courses in Tennessee high schools and community colleges: An exploration of the consequences of institutional context (Working Paper No. 91). New York: Community College Research Center.Google Scholar
  53. Fay, M. P., Bickerstaff, S., & Hodara, M. (2013). Why students do not prepare for math placement exams: Student perspectives (CCRC Research Brief No. 57). New York: Community College Research Center.Google Scholar
  54. Felder, J. E., Finney, J. E., & Kirst, M. W. (2007). “Informed self-placement” at American River College: A case study. San Jose, CA: National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education.Google Scholar
  55. Fields, R., & Parsad, B. (2012). Tests and cut scores used for student placement in postsecondary education: Fall 2011. Washington, DC: National Assessment Governing Board.Google Scholar
  56. Fitzgerald, J., & Shanahan, T. (2000). Reading and writing relations and their development. Educational Psychologist, 35(1), 39–50.  https://doi.org/10.1207/S15326985EP3501_5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Gerlaugh, K., Thompson, L., Boylan, H., & Davis, H. (2007). National study of developmental education II: Baseline data for community colleges. Research in Developmental Education, 20(4), 1–4.Google Scholar
  58. Givvin, K. B., Stigler, J. W., & Thompson, B. J. (2011). What community college developmental mathematics students understand about mathematics, Part 2: The interviews. MathAMATYC Educator, 2(3), 4.Google Scholar
  59. Goen, S., & Gillotte-Tropp, H. (2003). Integrating reading and writing: A response to the basic writing “crisis”. Journal of Basic Writing, 22(2), 90–113.Google Scholar
  60. Goldstein, L., Burke, B., Getz, A., & Kennedy, P. (2011). Ideas in practice: Collaborative problem-based learning in intermediate algebra. Journal of Developmental Education, 35(1), 26–37.Google Scholar
  61. Goudas, A. M., & Boylan, H. R. (2012). Addressing flawed research in developmental education. Journal of Developmental Education, 36(1), 2–13.Google Scholar
  62. Grubb, N. (with Gabriner, R.). (2013). Basic skills education in community colleges: Inside and outside of classrooms. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  63. Grubb, W. N. (2012). Rethinking remedial education and the academic-vocational divide: Complementary perspectives. Mind, Culture and Activity, 19(1), 22–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Hayward, C., & Willett, T. (2014). Curricular redesign and gatekeeper completion: A multi-college evaluation of the California Acceleration Project. Sacramento, CA: The Research & Planning Group for California Community Colleges.Google Scholar
  65. Hern, K. (with Snell, M.). (2010). Exponential attrition and the promise of acceleration in developmental English and math. Sacramento, CA: The Research & Planning Group for California Community Colleges.Google Scholar
  66. Hern, K. (2011). Accelerated English at Chabot College: A synthesis of key findings. Hayward, CA: California Acceleration Project. Retrieved from: http://cap.3csn.org/developing-pilots/integrated-reading-andwriting/ Google Scholar
  67. Hern, K., & Snell, M. (2013). Toward a vision of accelerated curriculum and pedagogy: High challenge, high support classrooms for underprepared students. Oakland, CA: LearningWorks.Google Scholar
  68. Hiebert, J., Gallimore, R., Garnier, H., Givvin, K. B., Hollingsworth, H., Jacobs, J., et al. (2003). Teaching mathematics in seven countries: Results from TIMSS 1999 video study (NCES 2003-013, Rev.). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics.Google Scholar
  69. Higbee, J. L., & Dwinell, P. (1996). Correlates of self-esteem among high-risk students. Research and Teaching in Developmental Education, 12(2), 41–50.Google Scholar
  70. Hinds, S. (2011). More than reshuffling: Lessons from an innovative remedial math program at The City University of New York. New York: City University of New York.Google Scholar
  71. Hoang, H., Huang, M., Sulcer, B., & Yesilyurt, S. (2017). Carnegie math pathways 2015–2016 impact report: A five-year review. Stanford, CA: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.Google Scholar
  72. Hodara, M. (2011). Reforming mathematics classroom pedagogy: Evidence-based findings and recommendations for the developmental math classroom (CCRC Working Paper No. 27). New York: Columbia University, Teachers College, Community College Research Center.Google Scholar
  73. Hodara, M., & Jaggars, S. S. (2014). An examination of the impact of accelerating community college students’ progression through developmental education. The Journal of Higher Education, 85(2), 246–276.Google Scholar
  74. Hodara, M., Jaggars, S. S., & Karp, M. (2012). Improving developmental education assessment and placement: Lessons from community colleges across the country. New York: Community College Research Center.Google Scholar
  75. Horn, L., & Neville, S. (2006). Profile of undergraduates in U.S. postsecondary education institutions, 2003–04: With a special analysis of community college students. NCES 2006-184. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics.Google Scholar
  76. Howell, J. S., Kurlaender, M., & Grodsky, E. (2010). Postsecondary preparation and remediation: Examining the effect of the early assessment program at California State University. Journal of Policy Analysis & Management, 29(4), 726–748.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Hu, S., Park, T. J., Woods, C. S., Tandberg, D. A., Richard, K., & Hankerson, D. (2016). Investigating developmental and college-level course enrollment and passing before and after Florida’s developmental education reform (REL 2017-203). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Regional Educational Laboratory Southeast.Google Scholar
  78. Hudesman, J., Crosby, S., Flugman, B., Issac, S., Everson, H., & Clay, D. (2013). Using formative assessment and metacognition to improve student achievement. Journal of Developmental Education, 37(1), 2–13.Google Scholar
  79. Jaggars, S., & Stacey, G. (2014). What we know about developmental education outcomes. New York: Community College Research Center.Google Scholar
  80. Jaggars, S. S., & Hodara, M. (2013). The opposing forces that shape developmental education. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 37(7), 575–579.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Jaggars, S. S., Hodara, M., Cho, S., & Xu, D. (2015). Three accelerated developmental education programs: Features, student outcomes, and implications. Community College Review, 43(1), 3–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Jenkins, D., Peroni, C., Belfield, C., Jaggars, S. & Edgecombe, N. (2010). A model for accelerating academic success of community college remedial English students: Is the Accelerated Learning Program (ALP) effective and affordable? (CCRC Working Paper No. 21) New York: Community College Research Center.Google Scholar
  83. Jenkins, D., Zeidenberg, M., & Kienzl, G. S. (2009). Educational outcomes of I-BEST, Washington State Community and Technical College System’s Integrated Basic Education and Skills Training program: Findings from a multivariate analysis. New York: Community College Research Center.Google Scholar
  84. Johnson, J., Rochkind, J., Ott, A. N., & DuPont, S. (2010). Can I get a little advice here? How an overstretched high school guidance system is undermining students’ college aspirations. New York: Public Agenda.Google Scholar
  85. Jenkins, D., Lahr, H., & Fink, J. (2017). Implementing guided pathways: Early insights from the AACC pathways colleges. New York: Community College Research Center/Teachers College/Columbia University.Google Scholar
  86. Kalamkarian, H. S., Raufman, J., & Edgecombe, N. (2015). Statewide developmental education reform: Early implementation in North Carolina and Virginia. New York: Community College Research Center.Google Scholar
  87. Karp, M. M. (2006). Facing the future: Identity development among college now students. PhD dissertation, Columbia University. Ann Arbor, MI: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Full Text database, UMI No. 3199561.Google Scholar
  88. Karp, M. M. (2011). Towards a new understanding of non-academic student support: Four mechanisms encouraging positive outcomes in the community college (Working Paper No. 28). New York: Community College Research Center.Google Scholar
  89. Karp, M. M., & Bork, R. H. (2014). “They never told me what to expect, so I didn’t know what to do”: Defining and clarifying the role of a community college student. Teachers College Record, 116(5), 1–40.Google Scholar
  90. Kember, D., & Gow, L. (1994). Orientations to teaching and their effect on the quality of student learning. Journal of Higher Education, 65(1), 58–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Kuehner, A. (2017, March). The power of integrating reading and writing for developmental students. Paper presented at the League for Innovation, San Francisco, CA.Google Scholar
  92. Kuncel, N. R., Credé, M., & Thomas, L. L. (2005). The validity of self-reported grade point averages, class ranks, and test scores: Meta-analysis and review of the literature. Review of Educational Research, 75(1), 63–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Logue, A., Watanabe-Rose, M., & Douglas, D. (2016). Should students assessed as needing remedial mathematics take college-level quantitative courses instead? A randomized control trial. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 38(3), 578–598.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Long Beach Community College. (2014). Promise pathways. Long Beach, CA: Long Beach City College. Retrieved from: lbcc.edu/promisepathwaysGoogle Scholar
  95. Marchitello, M., & Brown, C. (2015). How the common core will help the United States bring up its grade on mathematics education. Washington, DC: Center for American Progress. Retrieved from https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/education/reports/2015/08/13/119239/math-matters/ Google Scholar
  96. Martorell, P., & McFarlin, I. (2007). Help or hindrance? The effects of college remediation on academic and labor market outcomes (Working Paper). Dallas, TX: University of Texas at Dallas, Texas Schools Project.Google Scholar
  97. Martorell, P., & McFarlin Jr., I. (2011). Help or hindrance? The effects of college remediation on academic and labor market outcomes. Review of Economics & Statistics, 93(2), 436–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Melguizo, T., Bos, J. M., Ngo, F., Mills, N., & Prather, G. (2016). Using a regression discontinuity design to estimate the impact of placement decisions in developmental math. Research in Higher Education, 57, 123–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Nash-Ditzel, S. (2010). Metacognitive reading strategies can improve self-regulation. Journal of College Reading and Learning, 40(2), 45–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. National Center on Education and the Economy. (2013). What does it really mean to be college and work ready?: The mathematics required of first-year community college students. Washington, DC: National Center on Education and the Economy.Google Scholar
  101. New York Daily News. (2015, October 16). CUNY unveils $42M plan to boost graduation rates. Retrieved from: http://www.nydailynews.com/new-york/exclusive-cuny-42m-plan-boost-grad-rates-article-1.2399541
  102. Norman, J. (2017). Pathways post-participation outcomes: Preliminary findings. Stanford, CA: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Retrieved from: https://www.carnegiefoundation.org/resources/publications/pathways-post-participation-outcomes-preliminary-findings/ Google Scholar
  103. Paulson, E. J., & Armstrong, S. L. (2010). Postsecondary literacy: Coherence in theory, terminology, and teacher preparation. Journal of Developmental Education, 33(3), 4–6, 8 10, 12–15.Google Scholar
  104. Perin, D. (2011). Facilitating student learning through contextualization: A review of evidence. Community College Review, 39(3), 268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Perin, D. (2013). Literacy skills among academically underprepared students. Community College Review, 41(2), 118–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Perin, D., Bork, R. H., Peverly, S. Mason, L., & Vaselewski, M. (2012). A contextualized intervention for community college developmental reading and writing students (CCRC Working Paper 38). New York: Community College Research Center.Google Scholar
  107. Perin, D., Raufman, J., & Kalamkarian, H. S. (2015). Developmental reading and English assessment in a researcher-practitioner partnership (CCRC Working Paper No. 85). New York: Community College Research Center.Google Scholar
  108. Quint, J. C., Jaggars, S. S., Byndloss, D. C., & Magazinnik, A. (2013). Bringing developmental education to scale: Lessons from the developmental education initiative. New York: MDRC.Google Scholar
  109. Reddy, V. (2016, November). Using multiple measures to improve placement accuracy in community colleges. Paper presented at the OCTAE Convening on Supporting Student Success at Minority Serving Community Colleges, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  110. Richland, L. E., Stigler, J. W., & Holyoak, K. J. (2012). Teaching the conceptual structure of mathematics. Educational Psychology, 47(3), 189–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Rodriguez, O. (2014). Increasing access to college-level math: Early outcomes using the Virginia Placement Test. New York: Community College Research Center.Google Scholar
  112. Roueche, J. E., & Baker, G. A. (1986). Profiling excellence in America's schools. Arlington, VA: American Association of School Administrators.Google Scholar
  113. Royer, D. J., & Gilles, R. (1998). Directed self-placement: An attitude of orientation. College Composition and Communication, 50(1), 54–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Rutschow, E. Z., Diamond, J., & Serna-Wallender, E. (2017). Math in the real world: Early findings from a study of the Dana Center Mathematics Pathways. New York: MDRC.Google Scholar
  115. Rutschow, E. Z., Richburg-Hayes, L., Brock, T., Orr, G., Cerna, O., Cullinan, D., et al. (2011). Turning the tide: Five years of Achieving the Dream in community colleges. New York: MDRC.Google Scholar
  116. Rutschow, E. Z., & Schneider, E. (2011). Unlocking the gate: What we know about improving developmental education. New York: MDRC.Google Scholar
  117. Santa, C. M., & Høien, T. (1999). An assessment of early steps: A program for early intervention of reading problems. Reading Research Quarterly, 34(1), 54–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Scott-Clayton, J. (2011). The shapeless river: Does a lack of structure inhibit students’ progress at community colleges? (Working Paper No. 25). New York: Community College Research Center.Google Scholar
  119. Scott-Clayton, J. (2012). Do high-stakes exams predict college success? New York: Community College Research Center.Google Scholar
  120. Scott-Clayton, J., Crosta, P. M., & Belfield, C. (2014). Improving the targeting of treatment: Evidence from college remediation. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 36(3), 371–393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Scott-Clayton, J., Rodriguez, O. (2012). Development, discouragement, or diversion? New evidence on the effects of college remediation (NBER Working Paper No. 18328). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.Google Scholar
  122. Scrivener, S., Weiss, M. J., Ratledge, A., Rudd, T., Sommo, C., & Fresques, H. (2015). Doubling graduation rates: Three-year effects of CUNY’s Accelerated Studies in Associate Programs (ASAP) for developmental education students. New York: MDRC.Google Scholar
  123. Scrivener, S., & Logue, A. (2016). Building college readiness before matriculation: A preview of a CUNY start evaluation. New York: MDRC.Google Scholar
  124. Shore, M., Shore, J., & Boggs, S. (2004). Allied health applications integrated into developmental mathematics using problem based learning. Mathematics and Computer Education, 38(2), 183–189.Google Scholar
  125. Silva, E., & White, T. (2013). Pathways to improvement: Using psychological strategies to help college students master developmental math. Stanford, CA: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Retrieved from: https://www.carnegiefoundation.org/resources/publications/pathways-improvement-using-psychological-strategies-help-college-students-master-developmental-math/ Google Scholar
  126. Sommo, C., Mayer, A., Rudd, T., & Cullinan, D. (2012). Commencement day: Six-year effects of a freshman learning community program at Kingsborough Community College. New York: MDRC.Google Scholar
  127. Sommo, C., & Ratledge, A. (2016). Brining CUNY Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) to Ohio. New York: MDRC.Google Scholar
  128. Stigler, J. W., Givvin, K. B., & Thompson, B. J. (2010). What community college developmental students understand about mathematics. Stanford, CA: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.Google Scholar
  129. Stigler, J. W., & Hiebert, J. (1999). The teaching gap; Best ideas from the world’s teachers for improving education in the classroom. New York: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  130. Twigg, C. A. (1999). Improving learning and reducing costs: Redesigning large-enrollment courses. Troy, NY: Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Center for Academic Transformation.Google Scholar
  131. Venezia, A., Bracco, K. R., & Nodine, T. (2010). One-shot deal? Students’ perceptions of assessment and course placement in California’s community colleges. San Francisco: WestEd.Google Scholar
  132. Visher, M. G., Weiss, M. J., Weissman, E., Rudd, T., & Wathington, H. D. (2012). The effects of learning communities for students in developmental education: A synthesis of findings from six community colleges. New York: National Center for Postsecondary Research.Google Scholar
  133. Wachen, J., Jenkins, D., Belfield, C., & VanNoy, M. (2012). Contextualized college transition strategies for Adult Basic Skills students: Learning from Washington State’s I-BEST program model. New York: Community College Research Center.Google Scholar
  134. Wachen, J., Jenkins, D., & Van Noy, M. (2011). Integrating basic skills and career-technical instruction: Findings from a field study of Washington State’s I-BEST model. Community College Review, 39(2), 136–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Weinbaum, A., Rodríguez, C., & Bauer-Maglin, N. (2013). Rethinking community college for the 21st century. New York: New Community College at CUNY.Google Scholar
  136. Willett, T., Hayward, C., Nguyen, A., Newell, M., Bahr, P., Hetts, J., et al. (2015). Multiple Measures Assessment Project (MMAP) Spring 2015 Technical Report. Sacramento, CA: Research and Planning Group for California Community Colleges.Google Scholar
  137. Wong, A. (2013). Modularizing remedial mathematics. Primus, 23(3), 257–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Xu, D. (2016). Assistance or obstacle? The impact of different levels of English developmental education on underprepared students in community colleges. Educational Researcher, 45(9), 496–507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Yamada, H., & Bryk, A. S. (2016). Assessing the first two years’ effectiveness of Statway®: A multilevel model with propensity score matching. Community College Review, 44, 179–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Zeidenberg, M., Cho, S., & Jenkins, D. (2010). Washington State’s Integrated Basic Education and Skills Training Program (I-BEST): New evidence of effectiveness (CCRC Working Paper No. 20). New York: Community College Research Center.Google Scholar
  141. Zeidenberg, M., Jenkins, D., & Scott, M. (2012). Not just math and English: Courses that post obstacles to community college completion (CCRC Working Paper No. 52). New York: Community College Research Center.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Community College Research Center, Teachers CollegeColumbia UniversityNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations