Introduction to Drug-Drug Interactions

  • Manjunath P. Pai
  • Jennifer J. Kiser
  • Paul O. Gubbins
  • Keith A. Rodvold
Part of the Infectious Disease book series (ID)


Over 1000 new molecular entities (NMEs) have been introduced into the marketplace since the end of World War II. These therapeutic innovations have contributed to an increase in life expectancy but have also increased the prevalence of polypharmacy and the risk for adverse drug-drug interactions. The economic burden associated with adverse drug events is estimated to exceed $100 billion in the United States alone. These adverse events are most often associated with chronic medications used to manage hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, asthma, and depression that are widely prescribed in more economically developed countries. Acute infections most often lead to the short-term prescription of antimicrobials that can increase the risk for adverse events and or therapeutic failure when co-prescribed with these agents. Likewise combination antimicrobial therapies used to manage chronic or deep-seated infections carry a high potential for drug-drug interactions. The large number of NMEs and continued influx of new agents limits the design of a comprehensive resource that can accurately predict the extent and clinical implications of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions. This chapter provides a broad overview of clinical pharmacology from the perspective of systems that influence absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of drugs that can lead to pharmacokinetic drug interactions.


New molecular entities Adverse drug events Software Absorption Distribution Metabolism Elimination Excretion Regulatory Pharmacokinetics Pharmacodynamics 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Manjunath P. Pai
    • 1
  • Jennifer J. Kiser
    • 2
  • Paul O. Gubbins
    • 3
  • Keith A. Rodvold
    • 4
  1. 1.College of Pharmacy, University of MichiganAnn ArborUSA
  2. 2.Department of Pharmaceutical SciencesSkaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of ColoradoAuroraUSA
  3. 3.Division of Pharmacy Practice and AdministrationUMKC School of Pharmacy at MSU SpringfieldSpringfieldUSA
  4. 4.Colleges of Pharmacy and MedicineUniversity of Illinois at ChicagoChicagoUSA

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