Review on the Processes for the Recovery of Rare Earth Metals (REMs) from Secondary Resources

  • Archana KumariEmail author
  • Manis Kumar Jha
  • D. D. Pathak
Conference paper
Part of the The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series book series (MMMS)


Treatment of secondary/waste to recover rare earth metals (REMs) is gaining importance due to its increasing global demand, lack of availability of high grade natural resources and huge generation of secondaries. Present paper reports the critical review on available processes for recovery of REMs from secondaries viz. manufacturing scraps, e-waste, industrial residues such as red mud, fly ash, waste water, etc. Hydrometallurgical processes with combination of Beneficiation/Pyro-/Electro techniques are discussed to recover REMs effectively. The recommended processes require less energy to deliver high purity yield which is one step towards green environment. Salient findings on various methods are reported with recommendations which will be helpful to researchers working in the area of REMs extraction.


Rare earth metals Secondary resources E-waste Hydrometallurgy Red mud Coal fly ash 



Authors are thankful to the Director, CSIR-National Metallurgical Laboratory, Jamshedpur for the permission to publish this paper. One of the authors, Ms. Archana Kumari would like to extend her sincere gratitude to CSIR, New Delhi (Grant: 31/10(60)/2015-EMR-I) for providing Senior Research Fellowship to carry out this research work.


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Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Archana Kumari
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Manis Kumar Jha
    • 1
  • D. D. Pathak
    • 2
  1. 1.Metal Extraction and Recycling DivisionCSIR-National Metallurgical LaboratoryJamshedpurIndia
  2. 2.Department of Applied ChemistryIndian Institute of Technology (ISM)DhanbadIndia

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