Advertisement

The Condition of Political Virtue: Co-operative Individualism and Civil Association

  • Graham A. MacDonald
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter summarizes Ruskin’s thought and the way in which an account of Christian virtue informs that thought and his political outlook. Recognized to adhere to a conservative British tradition favourable to mixed government, episcopacy and legally constituted class relations, his reform advocacy favoured the cultivation of a kind of individualism steeped in an older legal ‘respect for the person’, shaped by co-operative working and social relationships. This condition is at odds with the ego-driven ethics required by many modern commercial practices and related institutions. Such virtuosic and ‘possessive’ individualism is contrasted with the modest qualities of enjoyment which fall to the well-habituated individual content with work and place.

Bibliography136

  1. Abse, Joan. 1980. John Ruskin: The Passionate Moralist. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.Google Scholar
  2. Albrecht-Carrié, René. 1958. A Diplomatic History of Europe Since the Congress of Vienna. New York: Harper.Google Scholar
  3. Alexander, Edward. 1973. Matthew Arnold, John Ruskin and the Modern Temper. Columbus: Ohio State University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Annan, Noel. 1959. The Curious Strength of Positivism in English Political Thought. London: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Barker, Ernest, ed. 1958. The Politics of Aristotle. London: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Baron, Hans. 1988. In Search of Florentine Humanism: Essays in the Transition from Medieval to Modern Thought. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Bentley, Michael, ed. 1993. Public and Private Doctrine: Essays in British History Presented to Maurice Cowling. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Berlin, Isaiah. 1991. The Crooked Timber of Humanity. London: Fontana.Google Scholar
  9. Bevir, Mark, ed. 2017. Historicism and the Human Sciences in Victorian Britain. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Birch, Dinah, ed. 1999. Ruskin and the Dawn of the Modern. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Black, Antony. 1984. Guilds and Civil Society in European Political Thought from the Twelfth Century to the Present. Ithica: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  12. ———. 1988. The Individual and Society. In The Cambridge History of Medieval Political Thought, c. 350–c.1450, ed. J.H. Burns, 588–606. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Blaug, Mark. 1963. The Myth of the Old Poor Law and the Making of the New. The Journal of Economic History 23 (2): 151–184.Google Scholar
  14. Bosher, Robert S. 1957. The Making of the Restoration Settlement: The Influence of the Laudians, 1649–1662. London: Dacre Press.Google Scholar
  15. Bowsky, William M. 1981. A Medieval Commune: Siena Under the Nine, 1287–1355. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  16. Braches, Fred. 2012. Charles Whetham: A Remarkable Resident of Ruskin, Whonnock Notes No. 18. Whannock: Whonnock Community Association.Google Scholar
  17. Bradley, J.L., and Ian Ousby, eds. 1987. The Correspondence of John Ruskin and Charles Elliot Norton. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  18. Broome, Isaac. 1902. The Last Days of the Ruskin Cooperative Association. Chicago: Charles H. Kerr.Google Scholar
  19. Brundage, W.F. 1992. A Socialist Utopia in the New South: The Ruskin Colonies in Tennessee and Georgia, 1894–1901. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.Google Scholar
  20. Bull, Philip. 1996. Land, Politics and Nationalism: A Study of the Irish Land Question. Dublin: Gill and Macmillan.Google Scholar
  21. Burke, Edmund. 1889. Works of Edmund Burke. Boston: Wm. Estes.Google Scholar
  22. Burns, J.H., ed. 1988. The Cambridge History of Medieval Political Thought, c. 350–c.1450. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  23. Burtt, Shelley. 1992. Virtue Transformed: Political Argument in England, 1688–1740. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Carlyle, Thomas. 1882. In My Irish Journey in 1849, ed. J.A. Froude. New York: Harper Bros.Google Scholar
  25. Cole, Margaret. 1946. Beatrice Webb. New York: Harcourt and Brace.Google Scholar
  26. Collingwood, R.G. 1922. Ruskin’s Philosophy. Titus Wilson: Kendal.Google Scholar
  27. Craig, David M. 2007. Robert Southey and Romantic Apostasy: Political Argument in Britain, 1780–1840. Woodbridge: Boydell Press.Google Scholar
  28. Creed, J.M., and J.S. Boys-Smith. 1934. Religious Thought in the Eighteenth Century, Illustrated from Writers of the Period. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  29. Crowe, Michael B. 1977. The Changing Profile of the Natural Law. The Hague: Martinus Hijhoff.Google Scholar
  30. d’Entrèves, A.P. 1994. Introduction by Cary J. Nederman. Natural Law: An Introduction to Legal Philosophy (Rev. ed.). New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers,.Google Scholar
  31. Daly, Herman E. 1991. Steady State Economics. 2nd ed. Washington, DC: Island Press.Google Scholar
  32. Dearden, James S. 2012. The Library of John Ruskin. Oxford: Oxford Bibliographical Society.Google Scholar
  33. Dugger, Julie M. 2006. Black Ireland’s Race: Thomas Carlyle and the Young Ireland Movement. Victorian Studies 48 (3): 461–485.Google Scholar
  34. Eagles, Stuart. 2011. After Ruskin: The Social and Political Legacies of a Victorian Prophet, 1870–1920. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  35. Every, George. 1956. The High Church Party, 1680–1718. London: S.P.C.K.Google Scholar
  36. Frost, Mark. 2014. The Lost Companions and Ruskin’s Guild of St. George. London: Antham Press.Google Scholar
  37. Froude, J.A. 1884. Carlyle’s Life in London. New York: Charles Scribner’s.Google Scholar
  38. Gash, Norman. 1979. Aristocracy and People: Britain, 1815–1865. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  39. Gibbs, Lee W. 2002. Richard Hooker’s Via Media Doctrine of Scripture and Tradition. Harvard Theological Review 95 (2): 40–70.Google Scholar
  40. Gide, Charles, and Charles Rist. 1915. A History of Economic Doctrines. Boston: D.C. Heath.Google Scholar
  41. Goodhart, A.L. 1953. English Law and the Moral Law, The Hamlyn Lectures, Fourth Series. London: A. Stevens.Google Scholar
  42. Halévy, Elie. 1955. The Growth of Philosophic Radicalism. Trans. Mary Morris,. Boston: Beacon Press,.Google Scholar
  43. Hanley, Keith, and Brian Maidment, eds. 2013. Persistent Ruskin: Studies in Influence, Assimilation and Effect. Surrey: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  44. Harris, José. 1999. Ruskin and Social Reform. In Ruskin and the Dawn of the Modern, ed. Dinah Birch, 7–34. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  45. Hart, H.A.L. 1961. The Concept of Law. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  46. Hewison, Robert, ed. 1981. New Approaches to Ruskin: Thirteen Essays. London: Routlege & Keegan Paul.Google Scholar
  47. Hilton, Boyd. 1986. The Age of Atonement: The Influence of Evangelicalism on Social and Economic Thought, 1785–1865. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  48. Holton, Bob. 1976. British Syndicalism, 1900–14: Myths and Realities. London: Pluto Press.Google Scholar
  49. Hont, Istvan, and Michael Ignatieff, eds. 1986. Wealth and Virtue: The Shaping of Political Economy in the Scottish Enlightenment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  50. Howard, Ebenezer. 1965. Garden Cities of Tomorrow [1904]. Cambridge, MA: M.I.T. Press.Google Scholar
  51. Israel, Jonathan. 2010. A Revolution of the Mind: Radical Enlightenment and the Intellectual Origins of Modern Democracy. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  52. Jarrett, Mark. 2013. The Congress of Vienna and Its Legacy: War and Great Power Diplomacy After Napoleon. London: I. B. Tauris.Google Scholar
  53. Jonsson, Frederick A. 2016. Island, nation, planet: Malthus in the Enlightenment’. In New Perspectives on Malthus, ed. Robert J. Meyhew, 128–152. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  54. Jonsson, Frederick A. 2017. Political Economy. In Historicism and the Human Sciences in Victorian Britain, ed. Mark Bevir, 186–210. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  55. Johnston, William M. 1967. The Formative Years of R.G. Collingwood. The Hague: Marinus Nijhoff.Google Scholar
  56. Kaplan, Fred. 1983. Thomas Carlyle: A Biography. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  57. Kramnick, Isaac. 1968. Bolingbroke and His Circle: The Politics of Nostalgia in the Age of Walpole. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  58. Ladd, Henry. 1932. The Victorian Morality of Art. New York: Ray Long and Richard R. Smith Inc.Google Scholar
  59. Landow, George P. 1971. The Aesthetic and Critical Theories of John Ruskin. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  60. Letwin, Shirley. 1975. Nature, History and Morality. In Nature and Conduct, ed. R.S. Peters, 229–250. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  61. MacDonald, Graham A. 2012. The Politics of the Golden River: Ruskin on Environment and the Stationary State. Environment and History 18 (1): 125–150.Google Scholar
  62. MacIntyre, Alasdair. 2007. After Virtue. 3rd ed. Notre Dame: Notre Dame University Press.Google Scholar
  63. MacPherson, C.B. 1962. The Political Theory of Possessive Individualism. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  64. Maitland, Frederick W. 1913. The Constitutional History of England. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  65. Masterman, Lucy. 1939. C.F.G. Masterman. London: Nicolson and Watson.Google Scholar
  66. McKeiver, Philip P. 2007. A New History of Cromwell’s Irish Campaign. Manchester: Advance Press.Google Scholar
  67. McNeill, William H. 1989. Arnold J. Toynbee. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  68. ———. 1995. Keeping Together in Time: Dance and Drill in Human History. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  69. Meadows, Donella H. 1972. The Limits to Growth: A Report for the Club of Rome’s Project on the Predicament of Mankind. New York: Universe Books.Google Scholar
  70. Mendilow, Jonathan. 1986. The Romantic Tradition in British Political Thought. London: Croom Helm.Google Scholar
  71. Meyhew, Robert J., ed. 2016. New Perspectives on Malthus. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  72. Mill, John Stuart. 1965. Principles of Political Economy: Book IV. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
  73. Milne, Doreen J. 1951. The Results of the Rye House Plot and Their Influence upon the Revolution of 1688. Transactions of the Royal Historical Society 5th Series 1: 91–108.Google Scholar
  74. Mishan, E.J. 1969. The Costs of Economic Growth. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books Ltd.Google Scholar
  75. Montague, F.C. 1889. Arnold Toynbee. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University.Google Scholar
  76. Morley, Edith J. 1917. John Ruskin and Social Ethics, Fabian Tract No. 179. London: Fabian Society.Google Scholar
  77. Mumford, Lewis. 1938. The Culture of Cities. Boston: Harcourt, Brace and Co.Google Scholar
  78. Nederman, Cary J. 1988. A Duty to Kill: John of Salisbury’s Theory of Tyrannicide. Review of Politics 51: 365–389.Google Scholar
  79. ———. 1992. Freedom, Community and Function: Communitarian Lessons of Medieval Political Theory. American Political Science Review 86 (4): 977–986.Google Scholar
  80. ———. 2009. Lineages of European Political Thought: Explorations Along the Medieval/Modern Divide from John of Salisbury to Hegel. Washington, DC: Catholic University Press of America.Google Scholar
  81. Nicolson, Harold. 1948. The Congress of Vienna. London: Constable.Google Scholar
  82. Norman, E.R. 1987. The Victorian Christian Socialists. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  83. Norman, Jesse. 2013. Edmund Burke: The First Conservative. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  84. Oakeshott, Michael. 1975. On Human Conduct. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  85. ———. 1993. In Religion, Politics and the Moral Life, ed. Timothy Fuller. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  86. Oleson, Tryggvi J. 1955. The Witengemot in the Reign of Edward the Confessor. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
  87. Pares, Richard. 1971. Limited Monarchy in Great Britain in the Eighteenth Century. London: The Historical Association.Google Scholar
  88. Peters, R.S., ed. 1975. Nature and Conduct. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  89. Plamenatz, John. 1966. The English Utilitarians. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.Google Scholar
  90. Playfair, Lyon. 1899. Memoirs and Correspondence. London: Cassell.Google Scholar
  91. Pocock, J.G.A. 1987. The Ancient Constitution and the Feudal Law. 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  92. ———. 2003. With a New Afterword. In The Machiavellian Moment: Florentine Political Thought and the Atlantic Republican Tradition. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  93. Quinton, Anthony. 1978. The Politics of Imperfection. London: Faber and Faber.Google Scholar
  94. Rocker, Rudolf. 1989. Anarcho-Syndicalism. London: Pluto Press.Google Scholar
  95. Rosenberg, John D. 1961. The Darkening Glass. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  96. Rosser, Gervase. 2015. The Art of Solidarity in the Middle Ages: Guilds in England, 1250–1550. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  97. Rubinstein, Nicolai. 1958. Political Ideas in Sienese Art. Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institute 21: 197–207.Google Scholar
  98. Schuyler, R.L., and Corine C. Weston. 1961. Cardinal Documents in British History. New York: Van Nostrand.Google Scholar
  99. Scott, Edith Hope. 1931. Ruskin’s Guild of St. George. London: Methuen.Google Scholar
  100. Secrest, Meryle. 1992. Frank Lloyd Wright: A Biography. New York: Knopf.Google Scholar
  101. Sherburne, James Clark. 1972. John Ruskin and the Ambiguities of Abundance: A Study in Social and Economic Criticism. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  102. Skinner, Quentin. 1978. The Foundations of Modern Political Thought: Volume One: The Renaissance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  103. ———. 1985. Ambrogio Lorenzetti: The Artist as Political Philosopher. London: The British Academy.Google Scholar
  104. Smith, Sydney. 1850. Elementary Sketches of Moral Philosophy. New York: Harper and Bros.Google Scholar
  105. Southgate, Donald. 1965. The Passing of the Whigs, 1832–1886. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  106. Spence, Margaret E. 1957. The Guild of St. George. Manchester: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
  107. Stanlis, Peter. 1965. Edmund Burke and the Natural Law. Ann Arbor: Michigan State University Press.Google Scholar
  108. Starn, Randolph. 1994. Ambrogio Lorenzetti: The Palazzo Pubblico, Siena. New York: George Brazillier.Google Scholar
  109. Starr, Christopher. 2007. Medieval Mercenary: Sir John Hawkwood of Essex. Essex: Essex Record Office.Google Scholar
  110. Sutherland, Lucy S., ed. 1966. Studies in History. London: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  111. Tate, W.E. 1969. The Parish Chest: A Study of the Records of Parochial Administration in England. 3rd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  112. Thomis, Malcolm I., and Peter Hold. 1977. Threats of Revolution in Britain, 1789–1848. Hamdon: Archon Books.Google Scholar
  113. Tierney, Brian. 1997. The Idea of Natural Rights. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdman’s.Google Scholar
  114. Trevor-Roper, H.R. 1987. Catholics, Anglicans and Puritans: 17th Century Essays. London: Secker and Warburg.Google Scholar
  115. Ward, Alan J. 1994. The Irish Constitutional Tradition: Responsible Government and Modern Ireland, 1782–1992. Dublin: Irish Academic Press.Google Scholar
  116. Wardle, Peter, and Cedric Quayle. 1989. Ruskin and Bewdley. St. Albans: Brentham Press.Google Scholar
  117. Waterman, A.M.C. 1991. Revolution, Economics and Religion: Christian Political Economy, 1798–1833. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  118. Weston, Corine C. 1981. Subjects and Sovereigns: The Grand Controversy Over Sovereignty in Stuart England. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  119. Wheeler, Michael. 1999. Ruskin’s God. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  120. Whitehouse, W.H., ed. 1920. Ruskin the Prophet. London: George Allen and Unwin.Google Scholar
  121. Wilde, Oscar. 1891. The Soul of Man Under Socialism. London: Humboldt.Google Scholar
  122. Willey, Basil. 1940. The Eighteenth Century Background. London: Chatto and Windus.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Graham A. MacDonald
    • 1
  1. 1.ParksvilleCanada

Personalised recommendations