Except for the anatomy of the nail apparatus, some differences exist among physiological features taking into account nail growth, nail shaping, nail lipid content etc…
The decoration of the nail is usually the privilege of the women who use nail polish which sometimes causes adverse reactions, as do sculptured nails, premixed acrylic gels, UV LED technology, “DIP” nails, “Press-on” nail, Art coatings and temporary press-on artificial nails.
A variant of the “worn-down nail syndrome” is described as “the bidet nail”. Nail disorders associated with menstruation, can also be related to the contraceptive pill and to pregnancy.
Unfortunately, women pay a heavy toll in daily chores!
Nail physiology Nail decoration Worn-down nail syndrome
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
De Berker DAR, André J, Baran R. Nail biology and nail science. Int J Cosmest Sci. 2007;29:241–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hilman R. Fingernail growth in the human subject. Hum Biol. 1955;27:247–83.Google Scholar
Jansen CW, Patterson R, Viegas SF. Effects on fingernail length on finger and hand performance. J Hand Ther. 2000;13:211–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Murdan S. Transverse fingernail curvature in adults: a quantitative evaluation and the influence of gender, age, and hand size and dominance. Int J Cosmet Sci. 2011;33:509–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Helmdach M, Thielitz A, Röpke EM, Gollnick H. Age and sex variation in lipid composition of human fingernail plates. Skin Pharmacol Appl Ski Physiol. 2000;13:111–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brosche T, Dressler S, Platt D. Age-associated changes in integral cholesterol and cholesterol sulfate concentrations in human scalp hair and fingernail clippings. Aging Clin Exp Res. 2001;13:131–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moghazy D, Sharan C, Nair M, et al. Sertoli-Leyding cell tumor with unique nail findings in a post-menopausal woman. J Ovarian Res. 2014;7:83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sano H, Shionoya K, Ogawa R. Fingernail configuration is influenced by mechanical forces on finger pads. J Dermatol. 2013;40:1056–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baran R, Schoon D. Cosmetology for normal nails. In: Baran R, Maibach HI, editors. Textbook of cosmetic dermatology. London: Informa; 2017. p. 264–75.Google Scholar
Schoon D, Baran R. Cosmetics for abnormal and pathological nails. In: Baran R, Maibach HI, editors. Textbook of cosmetic dermatology. London: Informa; 2017. p. 276–86.Google Scholar
Dowdy JC, Sayre RM. Photobiological safety evaluation of UV nail lamps. Photochem Photobiol. 2013;89:961–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baran R. The bidet nail: a French variant of the worn-down nail syndrome. Br J Dermatol. 1999;140:377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Orentreich N, Markofsky J, Vogelman JH. The effect of aging on the rate of linear nail growth. J Invest Dermatol. 1979;73:120–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Daniel CR. Nail pigmentation abnormalities. Dermatol Clin. 1985;3:431–43.Google Scholar
Colver GB, Dawber RPR. Multiple Beau’s lines due to dysmenorrhoea? Br J Dermatol. 1984;111:111–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Knight JF. Side benefits of the pill. Med J Aust. 1974;2:680.Google Scholar
Byrne JP, Boss JM, Dawber RP. Contraceptive pill induced porphyria cutanea tarda presenting with onycholysis of the finger nails. Postgrad Med. 1976;52:535–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Erpolat S, Eser A, Kaygusuz I, et al. Nail alterations during pregnancy: a clinical study. Int J Dermatol. 2016;55:1172–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Freyer JM, Werth VP. Pregnancy-associated hyperpigmentation associated with longitudinal melanonychia. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1992;26:493–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lubach D, Beckers P. Wet working conditions increase brittleness of nails, but do not cause it. Dermatology. 1992;185:120–2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Spruit D. Measurement of water vapor less through human nail in vivo. J Invest Dermatol. 1971;56:359–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Walters KA, Flynn GL, Marvel JR. Penetration of the human nail plate: the effects of vehicle pH on the permeation of homologous alcohols. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1985;37:4318–9.Google Scholar
Kazlow Stern D, Diamantis S, Smith E, et al. Water content and other aspects of brittle versus normal nails. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2007;57:31–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar