Aging of the Skin

Chapter

Abstract

Skin aging is the progressive skin loss of function due to intrinsic and extrinsic factors which have effects on both epidermis and dermis. Epidermal thinning and increased catabolic activity due to MMP expression cause loss of collagen and wrinkle formation. UV light and other factors such as pollution play a fundamental role in photoaging. In women, menopause and oestrogen decay can further increase the dermal decay of collagen and hyaluronic acid aging worsening the aging process.

Keywords

UV light Stratum corneum Pollution Metalloproteinases (MMP) Hyaluronic acid (HA) Collagen Skin microcirculation Corneocyte Dermal extracellular matrix (ECM) 

References

  1. 1.
    Zeng JP, Bi B, Chen L, Yang P, Guo Y, Zhou YQ, et al. Repeated exposure of mouse dermal fibroblasts at a sub-cytotoxic dose of UVB leads to premature senescence: a robust model of cellular photoaging. J Dermatol Sci. 2014;73:49–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Purohit T, He T, Qin Z, Li T, Fisher GJ, Yan Y, et al. Smad3-dependent regulation of type I collagen in human dermal fibroblasts: impact on human skin connective tissue aging. J Dermatol Sci. 2016;83(1):80–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Xia W, Quan T, Hammerberg C, Voorhees JJ, Fisher GJ. A mouse model of skin aging: fragmentation of dermal collagen fibrils and reduced fibroblast spreading due to expression of human matrix metalloproteinase-1. J Dermatol Sci. 2015;78:79–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Walraven M, Beelen RH, Ulrich MM. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) signaling in healthy human fetal skin: a descriptive study. J Dermatol Sci. 2015;78:117–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lee DH, Oh J-H, Chung JH. Glycosaminoglycan and proteoglycan in skin aging. J Dermatol Sci. 2016;83(3):174–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Krutmann J, Bouloc A, Sore G, Bernard BA, Passeron T. The skin aging exposome. J Dermatol Sci. 2017;85(3):152–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Waller JM, Maibach HI. Age and skin structure and function, a quantitative approach (I): blood flow, pH, thickness, and ultrasound echogenicity. Skin Res Technol. 2005;11:221–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Boss GR, Seegmiller JE. Age-related physiological changes and their clinical significance. West J Med. 1981;135:434–40.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Grove GL. Physiologic changes in older skin. Clin Geriatr Med. 1989;5:115–25.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sudel KM, Venzke K, Mielke H, Breitenbach U, Mundt C, Jaspers S, Koop U, Sauermann K, Knussman-Hartig E, Moll I, Gercken G, Young AR, Stab F, Wenck H, Gallinat S. Novel aspects of intrinsic and extrinsic aging of human skin: beneficial effects of soy extract. Photochem Photobiol. 2005;81:581–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Holt DR, Kirk SJ, Regan MC, Hurson M, Lindblad WJ, Barbul A. Effect of age on wound healing in healthy human beings. Surgery. 1992;112:293–7; discussion 297-8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Seyfarth F, Schliemann S, Antonov D, Elsner P. Dry skin, barrier function, and irritant contact dermatitis in the elderly. Clin Dermatol. 2011;29:31–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jackson SM, Williams ML, Feingold KR, Elias PM. Pathobiology of the stratum corneum. West J Med. 1993;158:279–85.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kligman AM. Perspectives and problems in cutaneous gerontology. J Invest Dermatol. 1979;73:39–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Marks R, et al. The effects of phoageing and intrinsic ageing on epidermal structure and function. G Ital Chir Dermatol Oncol. 1987;2:252–63.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Marks R. The epidermal engine. A commentary on epidermopoiesis, desquamation and their interrelationships. Int J Cosmet Sci. 1986;8:135–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Jansen LH, Hojyo-Tomoko MT, Kligman AM. Improved fluorescence staining technique for estimating turnover of the human stratum corneum. Br J Dermatol. 1974;90:9–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Roberts D, Marks R. Determination of age variations in the rate of desquamation. A comparison of four techniques. J Invest Dermatol. 1979;74:13–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Marks R. Measurement of biological ageing in human epidermis. Br J Dermatol. 1981;104:627–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Plewig G. Regional differences in cell sizes in the human stratum corneum II. Effect of sex and age. J Invest Dermatol. 1970;54:19–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Marks R, Nicholls S, King CS. Studies on isolated cornocytes. Int J Cosmet Sci. 1981;3:251–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Grove GL, Lavker RM, Hoelzle E, Kligman AM. Use of noon intrusive tests to monitor age associated changes in human skin. J Soc Cosmet Chem. 1981;32:15–26.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Leveque JL, Corcuff P, DeRigal J, Agache P. In vivo studies on the evolution of physical properties of the human skin with age. Int J Dermatol. 1984;23:322–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Corcuff P, Leveque JL. Corneocyte changes after acute UV irradiation and chronic solar exposure. Photo-Dermatology. 1988;5:110–5.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hermann S, Scheuber E, Plewig G. Exfoliative cytology: effects of seasons. In: Marks R, Plewing G, editors. Stratum corneum. Beriln: Springer; 1983. p. 181–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Leveque JL, Porte G, DeRgal J, Corcuff P, Francois AM, Saint-Leger D. Influence of chronic sun exposure on some biophysical parameters of the human skin; an in vivo study. J Cutan Aging Cosmet Dermatol. 1988;1:123–7.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Fenske NA, Lober CW. Structural and functional changes of normal aging skin. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1986;15:571–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Duncan KO, Leffell DJ. Preoperative assessment of the elderly patient. Dermatol Clin. 1997;15:583–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ashcroft GS, Horan MA, Herrick SE, Tarnuzzer RW, Schultz GS, Ferguson MW. Age-related differences in the temporal and spatial regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in normal skin and acute cutaneous wounds of healthy humans. Cell Tissue Res. 1997;290:581–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Oikarinen A. The aging of skin: chronoaging versus photoaging. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed. 1990;7:3–4.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Savvas M, Bishop J, Laurent G, Watson N, Studd J. Type III collagen content in the skin of postmenopausal women receiving oestradiol and testosterone implants. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1993;100:154–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Brincat MP, Baron YM, Galea R. Estrogens and the skin. Climacteric. 2005;8:110–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Calleja-Agius J, Muscat-Baron Y, Brincat MP. Skin ageing. Menopause Int. 2007;13:60–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Anderegg U, Simon JC, Averbeck M. More than just a filler - the role of hyaluronan for skin homeostasis. Exp Dermatol. 2014;23:295–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Oh JH, Kim YK, Jung JY, Shin JE, Chung JH. Changes in glycosaminoglycans and related proteoglycans in intrinsically aged human skin in vivo. Exp Dermatol. 2011;20:454–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Meyer LJ, Stern R. Age-dependent changes of hyaluronan in human skin. J Invest Dermatol. 1994;102:385–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Verdier-Sevrain S, Bonte F, Gilchrest B. Biology of estrogens in skin: implications for skin aging. Exp Dermatol. 2006;15:83–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Ohta H, Makita K, Kawashima T, Kinoshita S, Takenouchi M, Nozawa S. Relationship between dermato-physiological changes and hormonal status in pre-, peri-, and postmenopausal women. Maturitas. 1998;30:55–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Denda M, Koyama J, Hori J, Horii I, Takahashi M, Hara M, Tagami H. Age- and sex-dependent change in stratum corneum sphingolipids. Arch Dermatol Res. 1993;285:415–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Tazuke S, Khaw KT, Barrett-Connor E. Exogenous estrogen and endogenous sex hormones. Medicine (Baltimore). 1992;71:44–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Roshan S, Nader S, Orlander P. Review: ageing and hormones. Eur J Clin Investig. 1999;29:210–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Sauerbronn AVD, Fonseca AM, Bagnoli VR, Saldiva PH, Pinotti JA. The effects of systemic hormonal replacement therapy on the skin of postmenopausal women. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2000;68:35–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Ghadially R, Brown BE, Sequeira-Martin SM, Feingold KR, Elias PM. The aged epidermal permeability barrier. Structural, functional, and lipid biochemical abnormalities in humans and a senescent murine model. J Clin Invest. 1995;95:2281–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Reed JT, Ghadially R, Elias PM. Skin type, but neither race nor gender influence epidermal permeability barrier function. Arch Dermatol. 1995;131:1134–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Fluhr JW, Pelosi A, Lazzerini S, Dikstein S, Berardesca E. Differences in corneocyte surface area in pre- and post-menopausal women: assessment with the noninvasive videomicroscopic imaging of corneocytes method (VIC) under basal conditions. Skin Pharmacol Appl Ski Physiol. 2001;14(Suppl 1):10–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Pierard-Franchimont C, Letawe C, Goffin V, Pierard GE. Skin waterholding capacity and transdermal estrogen therapy for menopause: a pilot study. Maturitas. 1995;22:151–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Pierard GE, Letawe C, Dowlati A, Pierard-Franchimont C. Effect of hormone replacement therapy for menopause on the mechanical properties of skin. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1995;43:662–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Guinot C, et al. Effect of hormonal replacement therapy on skin biophysical properties of menopausal women. Skin Res Technol. 2005;11:201–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Chen L, Dyson M, Rymer J, et al. The use of high frequency diagnostic ultrasound to investigate the effect of hormone replacement therapy on skin thickness. Skin Res Technol. 2001;7:95–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Youn CS, Kwon OS, Won CH, et al. Effect of pregnancy and menopause on facial wrinkling in women. Acta Derm Venereol. 2003;83:419–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Farage MA, Miller KW, Elsner P, Maibach HI. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors in skin ageing: a review. Int J Cosmet Sci. 2008;30:87–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.San Gallicano Dermatological InstituteRomeItaly

Personalised recommendations