Advertisement

Diagnosis of Mycobacteriosis in Goats: Tuberculosis and Paratuberculosis

  • Hélder Quintas
  • Isabel Pires
  • Justina Prada
  • Maria da Conceição Fontes
  • Ana Cláudia Coelho
Chapter

Abstract

Two main diseases are caused by mycobacterium in goats. Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis or M. caprae, produces severe respiratory distress in goats or remain in a subclinical state. Another important mycobacteriosis in goats is paratuberculosis or Johne’s disease caused by M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis is characterized by chronic emaciation. In mycobacterial infections, clinical signs are insufficient to establish a diagnosis. Histopathological diagnosis of tuberculosis compatible lesions usually allows a presumptive diagnosis of the disease. The gold standard test for Mycobacterium spp. diagnosis is the microbiological culture but can take several weeks. During the past several years, many molecular methods have been developed for direct detection, species identification, and drug susceptibility testing of mycobacteria. Throughout this chapter, it will be reviewed the different methods of diagnosis of Mycobacterium spp. in goats. The main aim of this chapter is to describe the different methods of diagnosis with their advantages and disadvantages.

References

  1. Ambrosio SR, Oliveira EM, Rodriguez CAR et al (2008) Comparison of three decontamination methods for Mycobacterium bovis isolation. Braz J Microbiol 39:241–244CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Bauman CA, Jones-Bitton A, Menzies P et al (2016a) Prevalence of paratuberculosis in the dairy goat and dairy sheep industries in Ontario, Canada. Can Vet J 57:169–175PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Bauman CA, Jones-Bitton A, Jansen J, et al. (2016b) Evaluation of fecal culture and fecal RT-PCR to detect Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis fecal shedding in dairy goats and dairy sheep using latent class Bayesian modeling. BMC Vet Res 12:212. doi: 10.1186/s12917-016-0814-5
  4. Benavides J, González L, Dagleishc M et al (2015) Diagnostic pathology in microbial diseases of sheep or goats. Vet Microbiol 181:15–26CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bernabé A, Gómez MA, Navarro JA et al (1991a) Pathological changes of spontaneous dual infection of tuberculosis and paratuberculosis in goats. Small Rum Res 5:377–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bernabé A, Gómez A, Navarro A et al (1991b) Morphopathology of caprine tuberculosis II Tuberculosis Generalizada. An Vet Murcia 6(7):21–29Google Scholar
  7. Bernabé A, Gómez A, Navarro A et al (1991c) Morphopathology of caprine tuberculosis I Pulmonary Tuberculosis. An Vet Murcia 6(7):9–20Google Scholar
  8. Bernabé A, Gómez MA, Navarro JA et al (1996) Morfopatología de la Tuberculosis Caprina. Ovis 46:33–42Google Scholar
  9. Bezos J, Álvarez J, Romero B et al (2012) Tuberculosis in goats: assessment of current in vivo cell-mediated and antibody-based diagnostic assays. Vet J 191:161–165CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bezos J, Casal C, Díez-Delgado I et al (2015) Goats challenged with different members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex display different clinical pictures. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 167(3–4):185–189CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Buendía AJ, Navarro JA, Salinas J et al (2013) Ante-mortem diagnosis of caprine tuberculosis in persistently infected herds: influence of lesion type on the sensitivity of diagnostic tests. Res Vet Sci 95:1107–1113CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Chartier C, Mercier P, Pellet M-P et al (2012) Effect of an inactivated paratuberculosis vaccine on the intradermal testing of goats for tuberculosis. Vet J 191:360–363CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Chaubey KK, Gupta RD, Gupta S et al (2016) Trends and advances in the diagnosis and control of paratuberculosis in domestic livestock. Vet Q 36(4):203–227CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Coelho AC, Pinto ML, Miranda A et al (2010) Comparative evaluation of PCR in Ziehl-Neelsen stained smears and PCR in tissues for diagnosis of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Indian J Exp Biol 48:948–950PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Collins DS, Huey RJ (2015) Gracey’s Meat Hygiene. Wiley Blackwell, Oxford, UK, pp 185–222Google Scholar
  16. Corpa JM, Garrido J, Garcia Marin JF (2000) Classification of lesions observed in natural cases of paratuberculosis in goats. J Comp Pathol 122:255–265CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Crawshaw T, Daniel R, Cliton-Hadley R et al (2008) TB in goats caused by Mycobacterium bovis. Vet Rec 26:127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. de la Rua-Domenech R, Goodchild AT, Vordermeier HM et al (2006) Ante mortem diagnosis of tuberculosis in cattle: a review of the tuberculin tests, gamma-interferon assay and other ancillary diagnostic techniques. Res Vet Sci 81:190–210CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. de Lisle GW, Bengis RG, Schmitt SM et al (2002) Tuberculosis in free-ranging wildlife: detection, diagnosis and management. Rev Sci Tech 21:317–334CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Djønne B (2010) Paratuberculosis in goats. In: Behr MA, Collins DM (eds) Paratuberculosis: organism, disease, control. CAB International, Oxfordshire, pp 169–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Duarte E, Domingo M, Amado A et al (2008) Spoligotype diversity of Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium caprae animal isolates. Vet Microbiol 130:415–421CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. EFSA (2013) Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ), on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM), and on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW). Sci Opin Publ Health Hazards Covered Inspection Meat Sheep Goats. EFSA J 11(6):3265Google Scholar
  23. Eltholth MM, Marsh VR, Van Winden S et al (2009) Contamination of food products with Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis: a systematic review. J Appl Microbiol 107:1061–1071CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Fernández JG, Fernández-de-Mera I, Reyes LE et al (2009) Comparison of three immunological diagnostic tests for the detection of avian tuberculosis in naturally infected red deer (Cervus elaphus). J Vet Diagn Invest 21:102–107CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Garcia M, Gutiérrez C (1996a) Aspectos epidemiologicos y clinicos de la tuberculosis caprina. Ovis 46:45–59Google Scholar
  26. Garcia M, Gutiérrez C (1996b) Diagnostico de la tuberculosis caprina. Ovis 46:61–77Google Scholar
  27. Gelberg HG (2016) Alimentary system and the peritoneum, omentum, mesentery, and peritoneal cavity. In: McGavin MD, Zachary JF (eds) Pathologic basis of veterinary disease, 5th edn. Elsevier, St Louis, US, pp 398–399Google Scholar
  28. Gormley E, Corner LAL, Costello E et al (2014) Bacteriological diagnosis and molecular strain typing of Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium caprae. Res Vet Sci 97:S30–S43CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Hermon-Taylor J, Bull TJ, Sheridan JM et al (2000) Causation of Crohn’s disease by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. Can J Gastroenterol 14(6):521–539CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Juste RA, Perez V (2011) Control of paratuberculosis in sheep and goats. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 27(1):127–138CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Juste RA (2012) Current strategies for eradication of paratuberculosis and issues in public health. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 148:16–22CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Katoch VM (2004) Infections due to non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). Indian J Med Res 120:290–304PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Krüger C, Köhler H, Liebler-Tenorio EM (2015) Sequential development of lesions 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after experimental infection of goat kids with Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis. Vet Pathol 52(2):276–290CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Kwok HF, Scott CJ, Snoddy P et al (2010) Expression and purification of diagnostically sensitive mycobacterial (M. bovis) antigens and profiling of their humoral response in rabbit model. Res Vet Sci 89:41–47CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Liébana E, Aranaz A, Francis B et al (1996) Assessment of genetic markers for species differentiation within the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. J Clin Microbiol 34(4):933–938PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. Lightbody K, McNair J, Neill S et al (2000) IgG isotype antibody responses to epitopes of the Mycobacterium bovis protein MPB70 in immunized and in tuberculin skin test-reactor cattle. Vet Microbiol 75:177–188CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Lyashchenko P, Pollock J, Colangeli R et al (1998) Diversity of antigen recognition by serum antibodies in experimental bovine tuberculosis. Infect Immun 66:5344–5349PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. Manning EJB, Steinberg H, Krebs V et al (2003) Diagnostic testing patterns of natural Mycobacterium paratuberculosis infection in pygmy goats. Can J Vet Res 67(3):213–218PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. Marassi C, Almeida C, Pinheiro S et al (2009) The use of MPB70-ELISA for the diagnosis of caprine tuberculosis in Brazil. Vet Res Commun 33:937–943CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Markey B, Leonard F, Archambault M et al (2013) Clinical Veterinary Microbiology, 2nd edn. Mosby Elsevier, London, UK, pp 161–176Google Scholar
  41. Martín P, León L (1998) La tuberculosis: introduccíon a la enfermedad. Revisiones en Mastozoologia Galemys 10(2):36–46Google Scholar
  42. Matthews J (2017) Chronic weight loss. In: Diseases of the goat. 4th edition. Wiley-Blackwell, pp 115–130Google Scholar
  43. Morin M (1982) Johne’s disease (paratuberculosis) in goats: a report of eight cases in Quebec. Can Vet J 23:55–5PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. Müller B, Dürr S, Alonso S et al (2013) Zoonotic Mycobacterium bovis– induced Tuberculosis in Humans. Emerg Infect Dis 19(6):899–908CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. Munjal SK, Tripathi BN, Paliwal OP (2005) Progressive immunopathological changes during early stages of experimental infection of goats with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. Vet Pathol 42:427–443CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Naser SA, Sagramsingh SR, Naser AS et al (2014) Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis causes Crohn’s disease in some inflammatory bowel disease patients. World J Gastroenterol 20(23):403–7415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Navarre CB, Baird AN, Pugh DG (2002) Diseases of the Gastrointestinal System. In: Pugh DG, Bayerd AN (eds) Sheep and Goat Medicine, 2nd edn. Elsevier, St Louis, US, pp 92–93Google Scholar
  48. Niegowska M, Rapini N, Piccinini S, et al. (2016). Type 1 Diabetes at-risk children highly recognize Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis epitopes homologous to human Znt8 and Proinsulin. Sci Rep 6:22266.  https://doi.org/10.1038/srep22266
  49. Nuñez-Garcia J, Downs SH, Parry JE et al (2017) Meta-analyses of the sensitivity and specificity of ante-mortem and post-mortem diagnostic tests for bovine tuberculosis in the UK and Ireland. Prev Vet Med (in press) ( https://doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2017.02.017)
  50. OIE (2004) Bovine Tuberculosis. Manual of diagnostic test and vaccines for terrestrial animals, 5th edn. Office International des Epizooties, France, pp 409–438Google Scholar
  51. OIE (2009) Bovine Tuberculosis. Manual of diagnostic tests and vaccines for terrestrial animals. Office International des Epizooties, France, pp 686–689Google Scholar
  52. OIE (2010) Avian Tuberculosis. Manual of diagnostic tests and vaccines for terrestrial animals. Office International des Epizooties, Paris, France, pp 497–508Google Scholar
  53. Okura H, Toft N, Pozzato N et al (2011) Apparent prevalence of beef carcasses contaminated with mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis sampled from danish slaughter cattle. Vet Med Int 2011:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Palmer MV, Waters WR, Whipple DL et al (2004) Evaluation of an in vitro blood-based assay to detect production of interferon-ϒ by Mycobacterium bovis—infected white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). J Vet Diagn Invest 16:17–21CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Perea A, Arenas A, Maldonado A et al. (1999) Patología de los pequeños rumiantes en imágenes (II): Enfermedades de los adultos (enfermedades infecciosas). Ciência Veterinária. Available at: http://www.colvet.es/infovet/oct99/ciencias_v/articulo1.htm consulted in 20/09/05
  56. Pesciaroli M, Alvarez J, Boniotti MB et al (2014) Tuberculosis in domestic animal species. Res Vet Sci 97:S78–S85CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Plummer P, Plummer K, Still KM (2012) Diseases of the Respiratory System. In: Pugh DG, Baird AN (eds) Sheep and goat medicine, 2nd edn. Elsevier Saunders, Maryland Heights, MO, US, pp 143–149Google Scholar
  58. Quintas H, Reis J, Pires I et al (2010) Tuberculosis in goats. Vet Rec 166:437–438CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Quintas H, Alegria N, Mendonça A et al (2014) Coexistence of tuberculosis and mammary carcinoma in a goat. Reprod Dom Anim 49:606–610CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Reddacliff LA, Marsh IB, Fell SA et al (2010) Isolation of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis from muscle and peripheral lymph nodes using acid-pepsin digest prior to BACTEC culture. Vet Microbiol 145:122–128Google Scholar
  61. Robbe-Austerman S (2011) Control of paratuberculosis in small ruminants. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 27:609–620CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Sánchez J, Tomás L, Buendía AJ et al (2008) Avances en inmunología y métodos de diagnóstico en la tuberculosis caprina. Proceedings of XXXIII Jornadas Científicas y XII Internacionales de la Sociedad Española de Ovinotecnia y Caprinotecnia, Almería, 24–27 de Septiembre de 2008, Spain, pp 63–73Google Scholar
  63. Sánchez LT, Ortega N, Buendia AJ et al (2011) Microscopical and immunological features of tuberculoid granulomata and cavitary pulmonary tuberculosis in naturally infected goats. J Comp Pathol 145:107–117Google Scholar
  64. Sechi LA, Paccagnini D, Salza S et al (2008) Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis Bacteremia in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: an Infectious Trigger? Clin Infect Dis 46:148–149CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Shanahan A, Good M, Duignan A et al (2011) Tuberculosis in goats on a farm in Ireland: epidemiological investigation and control. Vet Rec 168(18):485.  https://doi.org/10.1136/vr.c6880
  66. Sharpe AE, Brady CP, Johnson AJ et al (2010) Concurrent outbreak of tuberculosis and caseous lymphadenitis in a goat herd. Vet Rec 166(19):591–592CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Shuralev E, Quinn P, Doyle M et al (2012) Application of the enfer chemiluminiscent multiplex ELISA system for the detection of Mycobacterium bovis infection in goats. Vet Microbiol 154:292–297CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Siguräardóttir ÓG, Press CM, Saxegaard F (1999) Bacterial isolation, immunological response, and histopathological lesions during the early subclinical phase of experimental infection of goat kids with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Vet Pathol 36:542–550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Smith M, Sherman D (2009) Tuberculosis. In: Goat medicine 2nd edition, Wiley-Blackwell, pp 357–358Google Scholar
  70. Timms VJ, Gehringer MM, Mitchell HM et al (2011) How accurately can we detect Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection? J Microbiol Methods 85:1–8CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Ulrichs T, Lefmann M, Reich M et al (2005) Modified immunohistological staining allows detection of Ziehl-Neelsen-negative Mycobacterium tuberculosis organisms and their precise localization in human tissue. J Pathol 205:633–640CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Uzal FA, Plattner BL, Hostetter JM (2016) Alimentary System. In: Grant Maxie M (ed) Jubb, Kennedy and Palmer’s Pathology of Domestic Animals, Vol.2, 6th edition, Elsevier, St Louis, US, pp 720–722Google Scholar
  73. Waters W, Palmer M, Thacker T et al (2006) Early antibody responses to experimental Mycobacterium bovis infection of cattle. Clin Vaccine Immunol 13:648–654CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. Windsor PA (2015) Paratuberculosis in sheep and goats. Vet Microbiol 181:161–169CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hélder Quintas
    • 1
  • Isabel Pires
    • 2
  • Justina Prada
    • 2
  • Maria da Conceição Fontes
    • 2
  • Ana Cláudia Coelho
    • 2
  1. 1.Mountain Research Centre (CIMO), ESAPolytechnic Institute of Bragança (IPB), Campus de Santa ApolóniaBragançaPortugal
  2. 2.CECAV, Animal and Veterinary Research CentreUniversity of Trás-os-Montes and Alto DouroVila RealPortugal

Personalised recommendations