Advertisement

Synergies Between Goat Grazing and Shrub Biomass in Mountain Areas

  • Duarte Marques
  • Marco Fachada
  • Hélder Viana
Chapter

Abstract

North and Center of inland Portugal are characterized by mountain areas with low productivity, and susceptible to desertification. The human settlements have low densities and the people are aged leading to agriculture abandonment contributing to the increase of wildfires. The rural population with low resources finds in the extensive livestock production a source of income making possible the survival in those inhospitable areas. The use of traditional agro-silvopastoral practices is essential for rural development, as it includes a set of ecosystem services contributing to the soil and water conservation and biodiversity maintenance. The goat grazing, in particular, is essential for the prevention of wildfires as they feed mainly in the shrubland areas, reducing the biomass load and, consequently, the fuel available for forest fires. The synergies created by goat production result, thus, in a direct economic benefit from cattle production and indirect ecological aspects, by reducing the probability of potential fires. An experimental study using targeted grazing, in the mountain municipality of Vila Pouca de Aguiar, North of Portugal, was carried out between 2012 and 2014 to analyze the feasibility of implementing this technique in order to manage the territory, leading to the minimization of occurrence and severity of fires. Nevertheless, this study needs an additional temporal period for a conclusive analysis, although evidence suggests that this method can play an important role in fire prevention.

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by European Investment Funds by FEDER/COMPETE/POCI-Operational Competitiveness and Internationalization Programme, under Project POCI-01-0145-FEDER-006958 and National Funds by FCT—Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology, under the project UID/AGR/04033/2013.

References

  1. Agee JK, Bahro B, Finney MA et al (2000) The use of shaded fuelbreaks in landscape fire management. For Ecol Manage 127(1):55–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aguiarfloresta (2014) Associação Florestal e Ambiental de Vila Pouca de Aguiar. Personal communicationGoogle Scholar
  3. Ancabra (2017) Associação Nacional de Cabra Bravia. Personal communicationGoogle Scholar
  4. Bowman DMJS, Balch J, Artaxo P et al (2011) The human dimension of fire regimes on Earth. ‎J Biogeogr 38(12):2223–2236Google Scholar
  5. Campbell E, Taylor Jr. CA (2006) Targeted grazing to manage weedy brush and trees. Chapter 9. In: Launchbaugh K (ed) Targeted grazing: a natural approach to vegetation management and landscape enhancement. American Sheep Industry Association, US, pp 89–98Google Scholar
  6. Carmel Y, Kadmon R (1999) Effects of grazing and topography on long-term vegetation changes in a Mediterranean ecosystem in Israel. Plant Ecol 145(2):243–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Catarino F, Sérgio C, Sim-Sim M et al (2000) The grazing and the honey production on Estrela and Malcata mountains. Ecological basis for a sustainable management of the mountain resources from Beira Interior. Project PAMAF-IED nº 8179, Final Report, Portugal, 81 p (with annexes)Google Scholar
  8. Catry FX, Rego FC (2008) A relação entre o pastoreio e os incêndios florestais. Caracterização e análise dos padrões temporais e espaciais dos fogos relacionados com o pastoreio. Centro de Ecologia Aplicada, Prof Baeta Neves. Instituto Superior de Agronomia, PortugalGoogle Scholar
  9. Costa H (2015) A cabra bravia, sua criação e perspetivas futuras. ANCABRA. Vila Pouca de Aguiar, portugal, Caderno TécnicoGoogle Scholar
  10. DGRF (2010) Estatísticas dos incêndios florestais. Totais Nacionais (2000—2010). Direcção geral dos Recursos Florestais. Ministério da Agricultura do Desenvolvimento Rural e das Pescas. Lisboa, PortugalGoogle Scholar
  11. Franca A (2001) The future of the green Mediterranean. Environmental Defence Office of the Autonomous Region of Sardinia, Alghero, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  12. González-Pelayo O, Andreu V, Campo J et al (2006) Hydrological properties of a Mediterranean soil burned with different fire intensities. CATENA 68(2):186–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. González-Rebollar JL, Robles AB, de Simón E (1999) Las áreas pasto-cortafuego: entre las prácticas de gestión y protección de los espacios forestales mediterráneos (Propuestas de selvicultura preventiva). In: Actas de la XXXIX Reunión Científica de la Sociedad Española para el Estudio de los Pastos, Almería, spain, pp 145–154Google Scholar
  14. Green LR, Newell LA (1982) Using goats to control brush regrowth on fuelbreaks. General Technical Report. PSW-GTR-59. Berkeley, CA: US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, US, p 13Google Scholar
  15. Greiman HL (1988) Sheep grazing in conifer plantations. Rangelands 10(3)Google Scholar
  16. IFAP (2016) Instituto de Financiamento da Agricultura e Pecuária. Available at http://www.ifap.min-agricultura.pt/portal/page/portal/ifap_publico/GC_oifap#.WXHAEoTyupo. Accessed June 2017
  17. INE (2017) Instituto Nacional de Estatística. Available at https://www.ine.pt/xportal/xmain?xpgid=ine_main&xpid=INE. Accessed June 2017
  18. Jáuregui BM, Celaya R, García U et al (2007) Vegetation dynamics in burnt heather-gorse shrublands under different grazing management with sheep and goats. Agrofor Syst 70(1):103–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Launchbaugh K, Brammer B, Brooks ML et al (2008) Interactions among livestock grazing, vegetation type, and fire behavior in the Murphy Wildland Fire Complex in Idaho and Nevada. US Geological Survey, Washington, USGoogle Scholar
  20. Magadlela AM, Dabaan ME, Bryan WB et al (1995) Brush clearing on hill land pasture with sheep and goats. J Agron Crop Sci 174(1):1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Mancilla-Leytón JM, Pino Mejías R, Martín Vicente A (2013) Do goats preserve the forest? Evaluating the effects of grazing goats on combustible Mediterranean scrub. Appl Veg Sci 16(1):63–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Manso FT, Monzón A, Oliveira J et al (2014) Relatório de monitorização do projecto Economountain. Fundo EDP de Biodiversidade. CIFAP—Departamento de Ciências Florestais e Arquitetura Paisagista, Escola de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias/UTAD. Vila Real, PortugalGoogle Scholar
  23. Merrill LB (1975) The role of goats in biological control of brush. Beef Cattle Sci Handb 12:372–376Google Scholar
  24. Merrill LB, Taylor CA (1976) Take note of the versatile goat. Rangeman’s J 3(3):74–76Google Scholar
  25. Moreira F, Rego FC, Ferreira PG (2001) Temporal (1958–1995) pattern of change in a cultural landscape of northwestern Portugal: implications for fire occurrence. Landscape Ecol 16(6):557–567CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Newsome TA, Newsome TH, Wikeem BM et al (1995) Sheep grazing guidelines for managing vegetation on forest plantations in British Columbia province of British Columbia. Ministry of Forests Research Program, Land Management Handbook, 34. doi: Available at http://www.for.gov.bc.ca/hfd/pubs/docs/lmh/Lmh34.pdf. Accessed June 2017
  27. Nordregio (2004) Areas in Europe: analysis of mountain areas in EU member states, acceding and other European countries. European Commission contract No 2002.CE.16.0.AT.136. Mountain. Final report, p 271Google Scholar
  28. Qasim S, Gul S, Shah MH et al (2017) Influence of grazing exclosure on vegetation biomass and soil conservation. Int Soil Water Conserv Res. Available at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2095633916301411. Accessed May 17
  29. Reinhardt ED, Keane RE, Calkin DE et al (2008) Objectives and considerations for wildland fuel treatment in forested ecosystems of the interior western United States. For Ecol Manage 256(12):1997–2006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Rigueiro A, Mosquera MR, Romero R et al (2005) 25 anos de investigación en Galicia sobre sistemas silvopastorales en prevención de incendios forestales. Comunication presented at the II International Conference on Prevention Strategies of Fires in Southern Europe, Barcelona, SpainGoogle Scholar
  31. Ruiz-Mirazo J (2011) Las áreas pasto-cortafuegos: un sistema silvopastoral para la prevención de incendios forestales. Ph.D. thesis, Universidad de Granada, Spain, 263 pGoogle Scholar
  32. Ruiz-Mirazo J, Robles AB, González-Rebollar JL (2011) Two-year evaluation of fuelbreaks grazed by livestock in the wildfire prevention program in Andalusia (Spain). Agric Ecosyst Environ 141(1):13–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Santos HP (2014) Economountain: Relatório Final do Projecto. Fundo EDP de Biodiversidade, PortugalGoogle Scholar
  34. Sharrow S (2006) Applying targeted grazing to coniferous forest management in Western North America. Chapter 10. In: Launchbaugh K (ed) Targeted grazing: a natural approach to vegetation management and landscape enhancement. American Sheep Industry Association, US, pp 89–98Google Scholar
  35. Torrano L, Valderrábano J (2005) Grazing ability of European black pine understorey vegetation by goats. Small Rum Res 58(3):253–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Varela Redondo E, Calatrava Requena J, Ruiz Mirazo J et al (2007) Valoración económica del pastoreo en términos de costes evitados en labores de prevención de incendios forestales. In: Moreno JM, Myers R, Moore P (eds) Wildfire 2007. 4th international wildland fire conference. Organismo Autonómico de Parques Nacionales, Ministerio de Medio Ambiente, Sevilla, Spain, pp 58–64Google Scholar
  37. Vélez Muñoz R (2009) Cambio global e incendios forestales: Perspectivas en la Europa Meridional. Recursos Rurais 5:49–54Google Scholar
  38. Viana N, Viana H, Simões J (2016) Plano Empresarial para Implementação de Explorações Pecuárias. Estudo de caso em Caprinicultura. Novas Edições Académicas, Deutshland/Niemcy, p 86Google Scholar
  39. Warren L, Shelton JM, Ueckert DN et al (1983) Influence of heredity on the selection of various forage species by goats. Texas Agricultural Experiment Station CPR 4171, Texas A&M Univ., College Station, US, pp 72–81Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Aguiarfloresta—Associação Florestal e Ambiental de Vila Pouca de AguiarVila Pouca de AguiarPortugal
  2. 2.ADRAT—Associação de Desenvolvimento da Região do Alto Tâmega, Avenida da CooperaçãoOuteiro Seco, ChavesPortugal
  3. 3.CI&DETS Research Centre/DEAS-ESAV, Polytechnic Institute of Viseu, Av. Cor. José Maria Vale de Andrade s/nViseuPortugal
  4. 4.Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environmental and Biological Sciences, CITAB, University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, UTADVila RealPortugal

Personalised recommendations