Final Conclusions

  • Vasileios Karagiannopoulos
Part of the Palgrave Studies in Cybercrime and Cybersecurity book series (PSCYBER)


This chapter closes the book by offering a summary of some of the major conclusions drawn throughout the book. It reminds the reader of the analysis regarding the positive and negative aspects of hacktivism and how this reinforces the need for more nuanced responses. It summarises the considerations that the current framework generates for producing such nuanced responses and how this leads to inefficacious and unjust results. It then proceeds to provide an overview of the main points relating to the suggested symbiotic framework and the various ways it could be practically applied. The chapter ends with a hope that this study will inform new discussions regarding hacktivism, but also cybercrime in general.

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vasileios Karagiannopoulos
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Criminal Justice StudiesUniversity of PortsmouthPortsmouthUK

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