Unique Aspects of Surgical Critical Care for Children

  • Jamie Golden
  • Aaron R. Jensen
  • David W. Bliss
  • Jeffrey S. Upperman
Chapter

Abstract

While there is considerable overlap between the care of adult surgical critical care patients and pediatric surgical patients in the ICU, there are unique aspects of pediatric care that warrant additional consideration. Differences in pediatric anatomy, physiology, and the impact of these differences between children and adults are highlighted in this chapter using a systems-based approach.

Keywords

Pediatric Children Surgical Critical Care 

References

  1. 1.
    Silverman AM, Wang VJ. Shock: a common pathway for life-threatening pediatric illnesses and injuries. Pediatr Emerg Med Pract. 2005;2:1–22.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Quareshi F, Blanco FC. Renal physiology, acute renal failure and renal replacement therapy in children. Handbook of pediatric surgical critical care. Arca MJ, editor. 1st ed. 2013. https://www.eapsa.org/apsa/media/Documents/APSAHandbookofSurgicalCriticalCare_Jun52014.pdf.
  3. 3.
    Association AH. Pediatric advanced life support (PALS) digital reference card. 2016. https://www.acls.net/pals-algorithms.htm.
  4. 4.
    Sunder RA, Haile DT, Farrell PT, Sharma A. Pediatric airway management: current practices and future directions. Paediatr Anaesth. 2012;22:1008–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Arca MJ. The pediatric airway. Handbook of pediatric surgical critical care. Arca M, editor. 1st ed. 2013. https://www.eapsa.org/apsa/media/Documents/APSAHandbookofSurgicalCriticalCare_Jun52014.pdf.
  6. 6.
    Fiadjoe J, Stricker P. Pediatric difficult airway management: current devices and techniques. Anesthesiol Clin. 2009;27:185–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lau N, Playfor SD, Rashid A, Dhanarass M. New formulae for predicting tracheal tube length. Paediatr Anaesth. 2006;16:1238–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Group ALS. Advanced paediatric life support:the practical approach. 5th ed. London: BMJ Books; 2011.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sims C, Ungern-Sternberg v. BS: the normal and the challenging pediatric airway. Paediatr Anaesth. 2012;22:521–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Arshad A, McCarthy MJ. Management of limb ischaemia in the neonate and infant. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2009;38:61–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Jensen A, Bliss D. Monitoring in the ICU. Handbook of pediatric surgical critical care. Arca MJ, editor. 1st ed. 2013. https://www.eapsa.org/apsa/media/Documents/APSAHandbookofSurgicalCriticalCare_Jun52014.pdf.
  12. 12.
    Kim JH, Lee YS, Kim SH, Lee SK, Lim MK, Kim HS. Does umbilical vein catheterization lead to portal venous thrombosis? Prospective US evaluation in 100 neonates. Radiology. 2001;219:645–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Coleman MM, Spear ML, Finkelstein M, Leef KH, Pearlman SA, Chien C, Taylor SM, McKenzie SE. Short-term use of umbilical artery catheters may not be associated with increased risk for thrombosis. Pediatrics. 2004;113:770–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Veldman A, Nold MF, Michel-Behnke I. Thrombosis in the critically ill neonate: incidence, diagnosis, and management. Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2008;4:1337–48.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Nowak-Göttl U, von Kries R, Göbel U. Neonatal symptomatic thromboembolism in Germany: two year survey. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 1997;76:F163–7.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Surgeons ACo. ATLS student course manual: advanced trauma life support. 9th ed. American College of Surgeons; 2012. Chicago, ILGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bright futures: guidelines for health supervision of infants, children, and adolescents. 3rd ed. Elk Grove: The American Academy of Pediatrics, 2008.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Harris J, Ramelet AS, van Dijk M, Pokorna P, Wielenga J, Tume L, Tibboel D, Ista E. Clinical recommendations for pain, sedation, withdrawal and delirium assessment in critically ill infants and children: an ESPNIC position statement for healthcare professionals. Intensive Care Med. 2016;42:972–86.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Franck LS, Harris SK, Soetenga DJ, Amling JK, Curley MA. The withdrawal assessment tool-1 (WAT-1): an assessment instrument for monitoring opioid and benzodiazepine withdrawal symptoms in pediatric patients. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2008;9:573–80.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Merkel SI, Voepel-Lewis T, Shayevitz JR, Malviya S. The FLACC: a behavioral scale for scoring postoperative pain in young children. Pediatr Nurs. 1997;23:293–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ista E, van Dijk M, Tibboel D, de Hoog M. Assessment of sedation levels in pediatric intensive care patients can be improved by using the COMFORT "behavior" scale. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2005;6:58–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    van Dijk M, Peters JW, van Deventer P, Tibboel D. The COMFORT behavior scale: a tool for assessing pain and sedation in infants. Am J Nurs. 2005;105:33–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Silver G, Traube C, Kearney J, Kelly D, Yoon MJ, Nash Moyal W, Gangopadhyay M, Shao H, Ward MJ. Detecting pediatric delirium: development of a rapid observational assessment tool. Intensive Care Med. 2012;38:1025–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Smith HA, Fuchs DC, Pandharipande PP, Barr FE, Ely EW. Delirium: an emerging frontier in the management of critically ill children. Anesthesiol Clin. 2011;29:729–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Alievi PT, Carvalho PR, Trotta EA, Mombelli Filho R. The impact of admission to a pediatric intensive care unit assessed by means of global and cognitive performance scales. J Pediatr. 2007;83:505–11.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Fiser DH, Long N, Roberson PK, Hefley G, Zolten K, Brodie-Fowler M. Relationship of pediatric overall performance category and pediatric cerebral performance category scores at pediatric intensive care unit discharge with outcome measures collected at hospital discharge and 1- and 6-month follow-up assessments. Crit Care Med. 2000;28:2616–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Horswell BB, Jaskolka MS. Pediatric head injuries. Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am. 2012;24:337–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Tieves K. In: Holcomb III GW, Murphy JP, editors. Pediatric head trauma. Ashcraft's pediatric surgery. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier; 2010.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Easter JS, Bakes K, Dhaliwal J, Miller M, Caruso E, Haukoos JS. Comparison of PECARN, CATCH, and CHALICE rules for children with minor head injury: a prospective cohort study. Ann Emerg Med. 2014;64:145–52. 52.e1–5.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kuppermann N, Holmes JF, Dayan PS, Hoyle JD, Atabaki SM, Holubkov R, Nadel FM, Monroe D, Stanley RM, Borgialli DA, Badawy MK, Schunk JE, Quayle KS, Mahajan P, Lichenstein R, Lillis KA, Tunik MG, Jacobs ES, Callahan JM, Gorelick MH, Glass TF, Lee LK, Bachman MC, Cooper A, Powell EC, Gerardi MJ, Melville KA, Muizelaar JP, Wisner DH, Zuspan SJ, Dean JM, Wootton-Gorges SL. (PECARN) PECARN: identification of children at very low risk of clinically-important brain injuries after head trauma: a prospective cohort study. Lancet. 2009;374:1160–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    da Silva PS, Reis ME, Aguiar VE. Value of repeat cranial computed tomography in pediatric patients sustaining moderate to severe traumatic brain injury. J Trauma. 2008;65:1293–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bata SC, Yung M. Role of routine repeat head imaging in paediatric traumatic brain injury. ANZ J Surg. 2014;84:438–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Howe J, Fitzpatrick CM, Lakam DR, Gleisner A, Vane DW. Routine repeat brain computed tomography in all children with mild traumatic brain injury may result in unnecessary radiation exposure. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2014;76:292–5. discussion 5-6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Farach SM, Danielson PD, Amankwah EK, Chandler NM. Repeat computed tomography scans after pediatric trauma: results of an institutional effort to minimize radiation exposure. Pediatr Surg Int. 2015;31:1027–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Gasior A, Juang D. Pediatric neurotrauma. Handbook of pediatric surgical critical care. Arca MJ, editor. 1st ed. 2013. https://www.eapsa.org/apsa/media/Documents/APSAHandbookofSurgicalCriticalCare_Jun52014.pdf.
  36. 36.
    Addioui A, Saint-Vil D, Crevier L, Beaudin M. Management of skull fractures in children less than 1 year of age. J Pediatr Surg. 2016;51:1146–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Powell EC, Atabaki SM, Wootton-Gorges S, Wisner D, Mahajan P, Glass T, Miskin M, Stanley RM, Jacobs E, Dayan PS, Holmes JF, Kuppermann N. Isolated linear skull fractures in children with blunt head trauma. Pediatrics. 2015;135:e851–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Malhotra A, Wu X, Kalra VB, Goodman TR, Schindler J, Forman HP. Screening for pediatric blunt cerebrovascular injury: review of literature and a cost-effectiveness analysis. J Pediatr Surg. 2015;50:1751–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Kochanek PM, Carney N, Adelson PD, Ashwal S, Bell MJ, Bratton S, Carson S, Chesnut RM, Ghajar J, Goldstein B, Grant GA, Kissoon N, Peterson K, Selden NR, Tasker RC, Tong KA, Vavilala MS, Wainwright MS, Warden CR, Surgery AAoP-SoN, Surgeons AAoNSCoN, Society CN, Care ESoPaNI, Society NC, Group PNCR, Medicine SoCC, UK PICS, Care SfNiAaC, Societies WFoPIaCC. Guidelines for the acute medical management of severe traumatic brain injury in infants, children, and adolescents--second edition. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2012;13(Suppl 1):S1–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Foundation BT. Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury. 4th ed. 2016. Neurosurg. 2017;80:6–15.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Chesnut RM, Temkin N, Carney N, Dikmen S, Rondina C, Videtta W, Petroni G, Lujan S, Pridgeon J, Barber J, Machamer J, Chaddock K, Celix JM, Cherner M, Hendrix T, Group GNR. A trial of intracranial-pressure monitoring in traumatic brain injury. N Engl J Med. 2012;367:2471–81.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Tanaka T, Litofsky NS. Anti-epileptic drugs in pediatric traumatic brain injury. Expert Rev Neurother. 2016;16:1229–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Liesemer K, Bratton SL, Zebrack CM, Brockmeyer D, Statler KD. Early post-traumatic seizures in moderate to severe pediatric traumatic brain injury: rates, risk factors, and clinical features. J Neurotrauma. 2011;28:755–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Young B, Rapp RP, Norton JA, Haack D, Walsh JW. Failure of prophylactically administered phenytoin to prevent post-traumatic seizures in children. Childs Brain. 1983;10:185–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Pearl PL, McCarter R, McGavin CL, Yu Y, Sandoval F, Trzcinski S, Atabaki SM, Tsuchida T, van den Anker J, He J, Klein P. Results of phase II levetiracetam trial following acute head injury in children at risk for posttraumatic epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2013;54:e135–7.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Lewis RJ, Yee L, Inkelis SH, Gilmore D. Clinical predictors of post-traumatic seizures in children with head trauma. Ann Emerg Med. 1993;22:1114–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Freeman JM. Febrile seizures: a consensus of their significance, evaluation, and treatment. Pediatrics. 1980;66:1009.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Gupta A. Febrile Seizures. Continuum (Minneap Minn). 2016;22:51–9.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Epstein LG, Shinnar S, Hesdorffer DC, Nordli DR, Hamidullah A, Benn EK, Pellock JM, Frank LM, Lewis DV, Moshe SL, Shinnar RC, Sun S, team Fs. Human herpesvirus 6 and 7 in febrile status epilepticus: the FEBSTAT study. Epilepsia. 2012;53:1481–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Steering Committee on Quality Improvement and Management SboFSAAoP. Febrile seizures: clinical practice guideline for the long-term management of the child with simple febrile seizures. Pediatrics. 2008;121:1281–6.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Seizures SoF, Pediatrics AAo. Neurodiagnostic evaluation of the child with a simple febrile seizure. Pediatrics. 2011;127:389–94.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Oluwabusi T, Sood SK. Update on the management of simple febrile seizures: emphasis on minimal intervention. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2012;24:259–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Freilich ER, Schreiber JM, Zelleke T, Gaillard WD. Pediatric status epilepticus: identification and evaluation. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2014;26:655–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Bober J, Rochlin J, Marneni S. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt complications in children: an evidence-based approach to emergency department management. Pediatr Emerg Med Pract. 2016;13:1–22. quiz −3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Fraser JD, Aguayo P, Sharp SW, Holcomb IIIGW, Ostlie DJ, St Peter SD. The safety of laparoscopy in pediatric patients with ventriculoperitoneal shunts. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A. 2009;19:675–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Bui CJ, Tubbs RS, Pate G, Morgan T, Barnhart DC, Acakpo-Satchivi L, Wellons JC, Oakes WJ, Blount JP. Infections of pediatric cerebrospinal fluid shunts related to fundoplication and gastrostomy. J Neurosurg. 2007;107:365–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Gassas A, Kennedy J, Green G, Connolly B, Cohen J, Dag-Ellams U, Kulkarni A, Bouffet E. Risk of ventriculoperitoneal shunt infections due to gastrostomy feeding tube insertion in pediatric patients with brain tumors. Pediatr Neurosurg. 2006;42:95–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Dellinger RP, Levy MM, Rhodes A, Annane D, Gerlach H, Opal SM, Sevransky JE, Sprung CL, Douglas IS, Jaeschke R, Osborn TM, Nunnally ME, Townsend SR, Reinhart K, Kleinpell RM, Angus DC, Deutschman CS, Machado FR, Rubenfeld GD, Webb S, Beale RJ, Vincent JL, Moreno R, Subgroup SSCGCiTP. Surviving sepsis campaign: international guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock, 2012. Intensive Care Med. 2013;39:165–228.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Brierley J, Carcillo JA, Choong K, Cornell T, Decaen A, Deymann A, Doctor A, Davis A, Duff J, Dugas MA, Duncan A, Evans B, Feldman J, Felmet K, Fisher G, Frankel L, Jeffries H, Greenwald B, Gutierrez J, Hall M, Han YY, Hanson J, Hazelzet J, Hernan L, Kiff J, Kissoon N, Kon A, Irazuzta J, Irazusta J, Lin J, Lorts A, Mariscalco M, Mehta R, Nadel S, Nguyen T, Nicholson C, Peters M, Okhuysen-Cawley R, Poulton T, Relves M, Rodriguez A, Rozenfeld R, Schnitzler E, Shanley T, Kache S, Skache S, Skippen P, Torres A, von Dessauer B, Weingarten J, Yeh T, Zaritsky A, Stojadinovic B, Zimmerman J, Zuckerberg A. Clinical practice parameters for hemodynamic support of pediatric and neonatal septic shock: 2007 update from the American College of Critical Care Medicine. Crit Care Med. 2009;37:666–88.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Myburgh J, Cooper DJ, Finfer S, Bellomo R, Norton R, Bishop N, Kai Lo S, Vallance S, Investigators SS, Group AaNZICSCT, Service ARCB, Health GIfI. Saline or albumin for fluid resuscitation in patients with traumatic brain injury. N Engl J Med. 2007;357:874–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Puligandla PS. Shock, low cardiac output, and inotropic support. Handbook of pediatric surgical critical care. Arca MJ, editor. 1st ed. 2013. https://www.eapsa.org/apsa/media/Documents/APSAHandbookofSurgicalCriticalCare_Jun52014.pdf.
  62. 62.
    Cassel-Choudhury GN, Aydin SI, Toedt-Pingel I, Ushay HM, Killinger JS, Cohen HW, Ceresnak SR. Arrhythmias in the paediatric intensive care unit: a prospective study of the rates and predictors of arrhythmias in children without underlying cardiac disease. Cardiol Young. 2015;25:1281–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Moffett BS, Salvin JW, Kim JJ. Pediatric cardiac intensive care society 2014 consensus statement: pharmacotherapies in cardiac critical care Antiarrhythmics. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2016;17:S49–58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Hansen JH, Petko C, Bauer G, Voges I, Kramer HH, Scheewe J. Fifteen-year single-center experience with the Norwood operation for complex lesions with single-ventricle physiology compared with hypoplastic left heart syndrome. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2012;144:166–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Green DM, Grigoriev YA, Nan B, Takashima JR, Norkool PA, D'Angio GJ, Breslow NE. Congestive heart failure after treatment for Wilms' tumor: a report from the National Wilms' Tumor Study group. J Clin Oncol. 2001;19:1926–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Huh WW, Jaffe N, Durand JB, Munsell MF, Herzog CE. Comparison of doxorubicin cardiotoxicity in pediatric sarcoma patients when given with dexrazoxane versus as continuous infusion. Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2010;27:546–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Agarwala S, Kumar R, Bhatnagar V, Bajpai M, Gupta DK, Mitra DK. High incidence of adriamycin cardiotoxicity in children even at low cumulative doses: role of radionuclide cardiac angiography. J Pediatr Surg. 2000;35:1786–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Goldberg JM, Scully RE, Sallan SE, Lipshultz SE. Cardiac failure 30 years after treatment containing anthracycline for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2012;34:395–7.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Kremer LC, van Dalen EC, Offringa M, Voûte PA. Frequency and risk factors of anthracycline-induced clinical heart failure in children: a systematic review. Ann Oncol. 2002;13:503–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Goorin AM, Chauvenet AR, Perez-Atayde AR, Cruz J, McKone R, Lipshultz SE. Initial congestive heart failure, six to ten years after doxorubicin chemotherapy for childhood cancer. J Pediatr. 1990;116:144–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Henderson IC, Sloss LJ, Jaffe N, Blum RH, Frei E. Serial studies of cardiac function in patients receiving adriamycin. Cancer Treat Rep. 1978;62:923–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Medhora M, Gao F, Glisch C, Narayanan J, Sharma A, Harmann LM, Lawlor MW, Snyder LA, Fish BL, Down JD, Moulder JE, Strande JL, Jacobs ER. Whole-thorax irradiation induces hypoxic respiratory failure, pleural effusions and cardiac remodeling. J Radiat Res. 2015;56:248–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Chen C, Heusch A, Donner B, Janssen G, Göbel U, Schmidt KG. Present risk of anthracycline or radiation-induced cardiac sequelae following therapy of malignancies in children and adolescents. Klin Padiatr. 2009;221:162–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Burrows FA, Hickey PR, Colan S. Perioperative complications in patients with anthracycline chemotherapeutic agents. Can Anaesth Soc J. 1985;32:149–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Jonsson T, Mortensen SA, Aabo K. Acute cardiac failure precipitated by anesthesia and surgery in patients treated with adriamycin. Ugeskr Laeger. 1984;146:3837–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Gadepalli S, Ruzic A, Hirschl RB. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation/extracorporeal lung support. Handbook of pediatric surgical critical care. Arca MJ, editor. 1st ed. 2013. https://www.eapsa.org/apsa/media/Documents/APSAHandbookofSurgicalCriticalCare_Jun52014.pdf.
  77. 77.
    Thiagarajan RR, Barbaro RP, Rycus PT, Mcmullan DM, Conrad SA, Fortenberry JD, Paden ML, centers Em. Extracorporeal life support organization registry international report 2016. ASAIO J. 2017;63:60–7.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Wenger RK, Bavaria JE, Ratcliffe MB, Bogen D, Edmunds LH. Flow dynamics of peripheral venous catheters during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation with a centrifugal pump. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1988;96:478–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Hirschl RB, Bartlett RB. In: Coran AG, editor. Extracorporeal life support for cardiopulmonary failure. Pediatric surgery. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders; 2012.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Rajagopal H, Karnik R, Sahulee R. Pediatric pulmonary hypertension. Pediatr Rev. 2016;37:129–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Abman SH, Hansmann G, Archer SL, Ivy DD, Adatia I, Chung WK, Hanna BD, Rosenzweig EB, Raj JU, Cornfield D, Stenmark KR, Steinhorn R, Thébaud B, Fineman JR, Kuehne T, Feinstein JA, Friedberg MK, Earing M, Barst RJ, Keller RL, Kinsella JP, Mullen M, Deterding R, Kulik T, Mallory G, Humpl T, Wessel DL, American Heart Association Council on Cardiopulmonary ACC, Perioperative and Resuscitation, Cardiology CoC, Young CoCDit, Intervention CoCRa, Anesthesia CoCSa, Society atAT. Pediatric pulmonary hypertension: guidelines from the American Heart Association and American Thoracic Society. Circulation. 2015;132:2037–99.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Wakeham M, Arca MJ. Mechanical ventilation. Handbook of pediatric surgical critical care. Arca MJ, editor. 1st ed. 2013. https://www.eapsa.org/apsa/media/Documents/APSAHandbookofSurgicalCriticalCare_Jun52014.pdf.
  83. 83.
    Liedel J, Das U. Ventilation in the NICU. Handbook of pediatric surgical critical care. Arca MJ, editor. 1st ed. 2013. https://www.eapsa.org/apsa/media/Documents/APSAHandbookofSurgicalCriticalCare_Jun52014.pdf.
  84. 84.
    Greer SE, McCunn M. High-frequency oscillatory ventilation. Curr Probl Surg. 2013;50:471–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Ethawi YH, Abou Mehrem A, Minski J, Ruth CA, Davis PG. High frequency jet ventilation versus high frequency oscillatory ventilation for pulmonary dysfunction in preterm infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016;CD010548.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Rowan CM, Cristea O, Greathouse ST, Coleman JJ, Nitu ME. Preemptive use of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation in pediatric burn patients. J Burn Care Res. 2013;34:237–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Cortiella J, Mlcak R, Herndon D. High frequency percussive ventilation in pediatric patients with inhalation injury. J Burn Care Rehabil. 1999;20:232–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Schweiger C, Marostica PJ, Smith MM, Manica D, Carvalho PR, Kuhl G. Incidence of post-intubation subglottic stenosis in children: prospective study. J Laryngol Otol. 2013;127:399–403.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Manica D, Schweiger C, Maróstica PJ, Kuhl G, Carvalho PR. Association between length of intubation and subglottic stenosis in children. Laryngoscope. 2013;123:1049–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Choi SS, Zalzal GH. Changing trends in neonatal subglottic stenosis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2000;122:61–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Overman AE, Liu M, Kurachek SC, Shreve MR, Maynard RC, Mammel MC, Moore BM. Tracheostomy for infants requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation: 10 years' experience. Pediatrics. 2013;131:e1491–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Ogilvie LN, Kozak JK, Chiu S, Adderley RJ, Kozak FK. Changes in pediatric tracheostomy 1982-2011: a Canadian tertiary children's hospital review. J Pediatr Surg. 2014;49:1549–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Simma B, Spehler D, Burger R, Uehlinger J, Ghelfi D, Dangel P, Hof E, Fanconi S. Tracheostomy in children. Eur J Pediatr. 1994;153:291–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Fraga JC, Souza JC, Kruel J. Pediatric tracheostomy. J Pediatr. 2009;85:97–103.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Al-Samri M, Mitchell I, Drummond DS, Bjornson C. Tracheostomy in children: a population-based experience over 17 years. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2010;45:487–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Martinez EE, Mehta NM. The science and art of pediatric critical care nutrition. Curr Opin Crit Care. 2016;22:316–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Kenney B, Arca MJ. Fluid, electrolytes, and nutrition. Handbook of pediatric surgical critical care. Arca MJ, editor. 1st ed. 2013. https://www.eapsa.org/apsa/media/Documents/APSAHandbookofSurgicalCriticalCare_Jun52014.pdf.
  98. 98.
    Fivez T, Kerklaan D, Mesotten D, Verbruggen S, Wouters PJ, Vanhorebeek I, Debaveye Y, Vlasselaers D, Desmet L, Casaer MP, Garcia Guerra G, Hanot J, Joffe A, Tibboel D, Joosten K, Van den Berghe G. Early versus late parenteral nutrition in critically ill children. N Engl J Med. 2016;374:1111–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Teitelbaum DH, Btaiche IF, Coran AG. In: Coran A, Adzick NS, Krummel TM, Laberge JM, Caldamone A, Shamberger R, editors. Nutritional support in the pediatric surgical patient. Pediatric surgery. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders; 2012.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Araujo TE, Vieira SM, Carvalho PR. Stress ulcer prophylaxis in pediatric intensive care units. J Pediatr. 2010;86:525–30.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Reveiz L, Guerrero-Lozano R, Camacho A, Yara L, Mosquera PA. Stress ulcer, gastritis, and gastrointestinal bleeding prophylaxis in critically ill pediatric patients: a systematic review. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2010;11:124–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    López-Herce J, Dorao P, Elola P, Delgado MA, Ruza F, Madero R. Frequency and prophylaxis of upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage in critically ill children: a prospective study comparing the efficacy of almagate, ranitidine, and sucralfate. The Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage Study Group. Crit Care Med. 1992;20:1082–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Nithiwathanapong C, Reungrongrat S, Ukarapol N. Prevalence and risk factors of stress-induced gastrointestinal bleeding in critically ill children. World J Gastroenterol. 2005;11:6839–42.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Costarino AT, Dai D, Feng R, Feudtner C, Guevara JP. Gastric acid suppressant prophylaxis in pediatric intensive care: current practice as reflected in a large administrative database. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2015;16:605–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Sahin S, Ayar G, Yazici MU, Koksal T, Akman AO, Gunduz RC, Kirsacoglu CT, Gulerman F. Stress induced gastrointestinal bleeding in a pediatric intensive care unit: which risk factors should necessitate prophilaxis? Minerva Pediatr. 2016;68:19–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Terrin G, Passariello A, De Curtis M, Manguso F, Salvia G, Lega L, Messina F, Paludetto R, Canani RB. Ranitidine is associated with infections, necrotizing enterocolitis, and fatal outcome in newborns. Pediatrics. 2012;129:e40–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Lightdale JR, Gremse DA, Section on Gastroenterology Hp, and Nutrition. Gastroesophageal reflux: management guidance for the pediatrician. Pediatrics. 2013;131:e1684–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Mohinuddin S, Sakhuja P, Bermundo B, Ratnavel N, Kempley S, Ward HC, Sinha A. Outcomes of full-term infants with bilious vomiting: observational study of a retrieved cohort. Arch Dis Child. 2015;100:14–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Rönnholm KA, Holmberg C. Peritoneal dialysis in infants. Pediatr Nephrol. 2006;21:751–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Zaritsky J, Warady BA. Peritoneal dialysis in infants and young children. Semin Nephrol. 2011;31:213–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Kaiser BA, Polinsky MS, Stover J, Morgenstern BZ, Baluarte HJ. Growth of children following the initiation of dialysis: a comparison of three dialysis modalities. Pediatr Nephrol. 1994;8:733–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Stewart CL, Acker SN, Pyle LL, Kulungowski A, Cadnapaphornchai M, Bruny JL, Karrer F. Factors associated with peritoneal dialysis catheter complications in children. J Pediatr Surg. 2016;51:159–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Fraser N, Hussain FK, Connell R, Shenoy MU. Chronic peritoneal dialysis in children. Int J Nephrol Renovasc Dis. 2015;8:125–37.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Goldstein SL. Advances in pediatric renal replacement therapy for acute kidney injury. Semin Dial. 2011;24:187–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Bock KR. Renal replacement therapy in pediatric critical care medicine. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2005;17:368–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Lacroix J, Hébert PC, Hutchison JS, Hume HA, Tucci M, Ducruet T, Gauvin F, Collet JP, Toledano BJ, Robillard P, Joffe A, Biarent D, Meert K, Peters MJ, Investigators T, Group CCCT, Network PALIaSI. Transfusion strategies for patients in pediatric intensive care units. N Engl J Med. 2007;356:1609–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Ricca RL, Arca MJ. Transfusion and anticoagulation. Handbook of pediatric surgical critical care. Arca MJ, editor. 1st ed. 2013. p. 214–31. https://www.eapsa.org/apsa/media/Documents/APSAHandbookofSurgicalCriticalCare_Jun52014.pdf.
  118. 118.
    Quinn K, Quinn M, Moreno C, Soundar E, Teruya J, Hui SK. Neonatal transfusion models to determine the impact of using fresh red blood cells on inventory and exposure. Blood Transfus. 2015;13:595–9.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Andrew M, David M, Adams M, Ali K, Anderson R, Barnard D, Bernstein M, Brisson L, Cairney B, DeSai D. Venous thromboembolic complications (VTE) in children: first analyses of the Canadian Registry of VTE. Blood. 1994;83:1251–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Raffini L, Huang YS, Witmer C, Feudtner C. Dramatic increase in venous thromboembolism in children's hospitals in the United States from 2001 to 2007. Pediatrics. 2009;124:1001–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Monagle P. Diagnosis and management of deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism in neonates and children. Semin Thromb Hemost. 2012;38:683–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Connelly CR, Laird A, Barton JS, Fischer PE, Krishnaswami S, Schreiber MA, Zonies DH, Watters JM. A clinical tool for the prediction of venous thromboembolism in pediatric trauma patients. JAMA Surg. 2016;151:50–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Thompson AJ, McSwain SD, Webb SA, Stroud MA, Streck CJ. Venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in the pediatric trauma population. J Pediatr Surg. 2013;48:1413–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Leeper CM, Vissa M, Cooper JD, Malec LM, Gaines BA. Venous thromboembolism in pediatric trauma patients: ten-year experience and long-term follow-up in a tertiary care center. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2017. Pediatr. Blood Cancer. 2017;64.Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Monagle P, Chan AK, Goldenberg NA, Ichord RN, Journeycake JM, Nowak-Göttl U, Vesely SK, Physicians ACoC. Antithrombotic therapy in neonates and children: antithrombotic therapy and prevention of thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines. Chest. 2012;141:e737S–801S.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Acharya SS. Rare bleeding disorders in children: identification and primary care management. Pediatrics. 2013;132:882–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Singer M, Deutschman CS, Seymour CW, Shankar-Hari M, Annane D, Bauer M, Bellomo R, Bernard GR, Chiche JD, Coopersmith CM, Hotchkiss RS, Levy MM, Marshall JC, Martin GS, Opal SM, Rubenfeld GD, van der Poll T, Vincent JL, Angus DC. The third international consensus definitions for sepsis and septic shock (Sepsis-3). JAMA. 2016;315:801–10.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Ruzic A, Gadepalli S, Hirschl R. Sepsis. Handbook of pediatric surgical critical care. Arca MJ, editor. 1st ed. 2013. https://www.eapsa.org/apsa/media/Documents/APSAHandbookofSurgicalCriticalCare_Jun52014.pdf.
  129. 129.
    Cortese F, Scicchitano P, Gesualdo M, Filaninno A, De Giorgi E, Schettini F, Laforgia N, Ciccone MM. Early and late infections in newborns: where do we stand? A review. Pediatr Neonatol. 2015. Pediatr. Neonatol. 2016;57:265–73.Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Sur DK, Bukont EL. Evaluating fever of unidentifiable source in young children. Am Fam Physician. 2007;75:1805–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Sherman JM, Sood SK. Current challenges in the diagnosis and management of fever. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2012;24:400–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention NCfIPaC: 10 Leading Causes of Death by Age Group, United States - 2011. http://www.cdc.gov/injury/wisqars/pdf/leading_causes_of_death_by_age_group_2011-a.pdf.
  133. 133.
    Association AH. Pediatric advanced life support (PALS) provider manual. 12th ed. Dallas: American Heart Association; 2016.Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Leventhal JM, Martin KD, Gaither JR. Using US data to estimate the incidence of serious physical abuse in children. Pediatrics. 2012;129:458–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Lane WG, Lotwin I, Dubowitz H, Langenberg P, Dischinger P. Outcomes for children hospitalized with abusive versus noninflicted abdominal trauma. Pediatrics. 2011;127:e1400–5.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Paul AR, Adamo MA. Non-accidental trauma in pediatric patients: a review of epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment. Transl Pediatr. 2014;3:195–207.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Horowitz L, Kassam-Adams N, Bergstein J. Mental health aspects of emergency medical services for children: summary of a consensus conference. Acad Emerg Med. 2001;8:1187–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Balluffi A, Kassam-Adams N, Kazak A, Tucker M, Dominguez T, Helfaer M. Traumatic stress in parents of children admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2004;5:547–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Muscara F, Burke K, McCarthy MC, Anderson VA, Hearps SJ, Dimovski A, Nicholson JM. Parent distress reactions following a serious illness or injury in their child: a protocol paper for the take a Breath Cohort Study. BMC Psychiatry. 2015;15:153.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Davidson JE, Aslakson RA, Long AC, Puntillo KA, Kross EK, Hart J, Cox CE, Wunsch H, Wickline MA, Nunnally ME, Netzer G, Kentish-Barnes N, Sprung CL, Hartog CS, Coombs M, Gerritsen RT, Hopkins RO, Franck LS, Skrobik Y, Kon AA, Scruth EA, Harvey MA, Lewis-Newby M, White DB, Swoboda SM, Cooke CR, Levy MM, Azoulay E, Curtis JR. Guidelines for family-centered care in the neonatal, pediatric, and adult ICU. Crit Care Med. 2017;45:103–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jamie Golden
    • 1
  • Aaron R. Jensen
    • 1
  • David W. Bliss
    • 1
  • Jeffrey S. Upperman
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of SurgeryKeck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Division of Pediatric Surgery, Children’s Hospital Los AngelesLos AngelesUSA

Personalised recommendations