Infections with fungal and viral pathogens in the surgical intensive care unit (ICU) are not uncommon. Often, however, diagnosis tends to be either delayed or superimposed on bacterial infections. In some scenarios, definitive diagnosis can be challenging and a high index of suspicion is warranted to promptly manage critically ill patients. This approach is critical especially in immunosuppressed patients given their relative vulnerability to a multitude of infectious processes. Although rare, oddball infections with rare viruses and fungi can significantly affect the clinical course and recovery of patients if timely diagnosis is delayed. This chapter highlights important fungal, viral, and rare infections in the context of critically ill and high-risk patients, including the immunosuppressed patients, in the surgical ICU.
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