Endpoints of Resuscitation

  • Benjamin L. Davis
  • Martin A. Schreiber


There are many methods for measuring the adequacy of resuscitation in a patient in shock, but none is universally applicable and few appear to be without significant limitations. As in so many areas of medicine, the constellation of findings from multiple modalities and the patient’s trajectory must be interpreted and acted upon, occasionally with imperfect data. Further, given the disparate settings and situations in which resuscitations are performed, the methods of guiding resuscitation must be tailored to local capabilities. While under-resuscitation often has grave consequences, over-resuscitation also leads to worse outcomes. In this chapter, we attempt to present a concise review of available endpoints of resuscitation and caveats to their use, as well as the limitations to available modalities.


Resuscitation Hemodynamic endpoints Mean arterial pressure Central venous pressure Pulse contour wave analysis Echocardiography Metabolic endpoints Novel markers Regional endpoints Gastric tonometry 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Acute Care SurgeryUniversity of Arkansas for Medical SciencesLittle RockUSA
  2. 2.Division of Trauma, Surgical Critical Care, and Acute Care SurgeryOregon Health and Science UniversityPortlandUSA

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