Biomimetics pp 577-620 | Cite as

Rice Leaf and Butterfly Wing Effect

  • Bharat BhushanEmail author
Part of the Springer Series in Materials Science book series (SSMATERIALS, volume 279)


Fluid drag reduction and antifouling are of commercial interest (Bhushan and Jung 2011; Bixler and Bhushan 2012a, 2015). Many flora and fauna flourish in living nature due to their low drag and antifouling properties, with commonly studied examples including shark skin and lotus leaves. Inspired by shark skin and lotus leaves, Bixler and Bhushan (2012b) found that rice leaves and butterfly wings combine the shark skin and lotus effects. Sinusoidal grooves in rice leaves and aligned shingle-like scales in butterfly wings provide the anisotropic flow. Hierarchical structures consisting of micropapillae superimposed by waxy nanobumps in rice leaves and microgrooves on top of shingle like scales in butterfly wings provide superhydrophobicity and low adhesion. Various studies suggest that this combination of anisotropic flow, superhydrophobicity, and low adhesion leads to improved drag reduction, self-cleaning, and antifouling (Bixler and Bhushan 2012b, 2013a, d, 2014; Bixler et al. 2014). Bixler and Bhushan (2015) provide a review and details follow.


  1. Barthlott, W. and Neinhuis, C. (1997), “Purity of the Sacred Lotus, or Escape from Contamination in Biological Surfaces,” Planta 202, 1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barthlott, W. Mail, M., Bhushan, B., and Koch, K. (2017), “Plant Surfaces: Structures and Functions for Biomimetic Innovations,” Nano-Micro Letters 9:23.Google Scholar
  3. Bechert, D. W., Bruse, M., Hage, W., and Meyer, R. (1997), “Biological Surfaces and Their Technological Application – Laboratory and Flight Experiments on Drag Reduction and Separation Control,” Paper # AIAA-1997-1960, presented at AIAA 28th Fluid Dynamics Conference, Snowmass Village, CO, AIAA, New York.Google Scholar
  4. Bhushan, B. (2009), “Biomimetics: Lessons from Nature – an Overview,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A. 367, 1445–1486.Google Scholar
  5. Bhushan, B. (2017), Springer Handbook of Nanotechnology, fourth ed., Springer International, Cham, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  6. Bhushan, B. and Jung, Y. C. (2011), “Natural and Biomimetic Artificial Surfaces for Superhydrophobicity, Self-Cleaning, Low Adhesion, and Drag Reduction,” Prog. Mater. Sci. 56, 1–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bhushan, B., Jung, Y. C. and Koch, K. (2009), “Self-Cleaning Efficiency of Artificial Superhydrophobic Surfaces,” Langmuir, 25, 3240–3248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bixler, G. D. and Bhushan, B. (2012a), “Biofouling Lessons from Nature,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 370, 2381–2417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bixler, G. D. and Bhushan, B. (2012b), “‘Bioinspired Rice Leaf and Butterfly Wing Surface Structures Combining Shark Skin and Lotus Effects,” Soft Matter 8, 11271–11284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bixler, G. D. and Bhushan, B. (2013a), “Bioinspired Micro/nanostructured Surfaces for Oil Drag Reduction in Closed Channel Flow,” Soft Matter 9, 1620–1635.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bixler, G. D. and Bhushan, B. (2013b), “Shark Skin Inspired Low-drag Microstructured Surfaces in Closed Channel Flow,” J. Colloid Interf. Sci. 393, 384–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bixler, G. D. and Bhushan, B. (2013c), “Fluid Drag Reduction with Shark-skin Riblet Inspired Microstructured Surfaces,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23, 4507–4528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bixler, G. D. and Bhushan, B. (2013d), “Fluid Drag Reduction and Efficient Self-Cleaning with Rice Leaf and Butterfly Wing Bioinspired Surfaces,” Nanoscale 5, 7685–7710.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bixler, G. D. and Bhushan, B. (2014), “Rice- and Butterfly-Wing Effect Inspired Self-Cleaning and Low Drag Micro/nanopatterned Surfaces in Water, Oil, and Air Flow,” Nanoscale, 6, 76–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bixler, G. D. and Bhushan, B. (2015), “Rice- and Butterfly-Wing Effect Inspired Low Drag and Antifouling Surfaces: A Review,” Crit. Rev. in Solid State Mater. Sci. 40, 1–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bixler, G. D., Theiss, A., Bhushan, B., and Lee, S. C. (2014), “Anti-fouling Properties of Microstructured Surfaces Bio-inspired by Rice Leaves and Butterfly Wings,” J. Colloid Interface Sci., 419, 114–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Blevins, R. D. (1984), Applied Fluid Dynamics Handbook, Van Nostrand-Reinhold, New York.Google Scholar
  18. Daniello, R. J., Waterhouse, N. E. and Rothstein, J. P. (2009), “Drag Reduction in Turbulent Flows over Superhydrophobic Surfaces,” Phys. of Fluids 21, 085103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dean, B. and Bhushan, B. (2010), “Shark-skin Surfaces for Fluid-Drag Reduction in Turbulent Flow: a Review,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A. 368, 4775–4806.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ebert, D. and Bhushan, B. (2012a), “Wear-resistant Rose Petal-effect Surfaces with Superhydrophobicity and High Droplet Adhesion Using Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Nanoparticles,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 384, 182–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ebert, D. and Bhushan, B. (2012b), “Transparent, Superhydrophobic, and Wear-Resistant Coatings on Glass and Polymer Substrates Using SiO2, ZnO, and ITO Nanoparticles,” Langmuir 28, 11391–11399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Haynes, W. M. (ed.) (2014), CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 95th Edition, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.Google Scholar
  23. Jing, D. and Bhushan, B. (2013), “Boundary Slip of Superoleophilic, Oleophobic and Superoleophobic Surfaces Immersed in Deionized Water, Hexadecane, and Ethylene Glycol,” Langmuir 29, 14691–14700.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Jung, Y. C. and Bhushan, B. (2010), “Biomimetic Structures for Fluid Drag Reduction in Laminar and Turbulent Flows,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 22, 1–9.Google Scholar
  25. Koch, K., Bhushan, B., and Barthlott, W. (2008), “Diversity of Structure, Morphology, and Wetting of Plant Surfaces,” Soft Matter 4, 1943–1963.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Koch, K., Bhushan, B., and Barthlott, W. (2009a), “Multifunctional Surface Structures of Plants: An Inspiration for Biomimetics,” Prog. Mater. Sci. 54, 137–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Koch, K., Bhushan, B., Jung, Y. C., and Barthlott, W. (2009b), “Fabrication of Artificial Lotus Leaves and Significance of Hierarchical Structure for Superhydrophobicity and Low Adhesion,” Soft Matter 5, 1386–1393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Liu, K. and Jiang, L. (2011), “Bio-inspired Designed of Multiscale Structures for Function Integration,” Nano Today 6, 155–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Liu, M., Wang, S., Wei, Z., Song, Y. and Jiang, L. (2009), “Bioinspired Design of a Superoleophobic and Low Adhesive Water/Solid Interface,” Adv. Mater. 21, 665–669.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Martell, M. B., Rothstein, J. P. and Perot, J. B. (2010), “An Analysis of Superhydrophobic Turbulent Drag Reduction Mechanisms Using Direct Numerical Simulation,” Phys. of Fluids 22, 065102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Munson, B. R., Rothmayer, A. P., Okiishi, T. M., and Huebsch, W. D. (2012), Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics, seventh ed., Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  32. Nosonovsky, M. and Bhushan, B. (2008), Multiscale Dissipative Mechanisms and Hierarchical Surfaces, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, Germany.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ou, J., Perot, B. and Rothstein, J. P. (2004), “Laminar Drag Reduction in Microchannels Using Ultrahydrophobic Surfaces,” Phys. of Fluids 16, 4635–4643.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Pritchard, P. J. and Mitchell, J. W. (2015), Fox and McDonald’s Introduction to Fluid Mechanics, ninth ed., Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  35. Wagner, T., Neinhuis, C. and Barthlott, W. (1996), “Wettability and Contaminability of Insect Wings as a Function of Their Surface Sculptures,” Acta Zoologica 77, 213–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Wang, Y. and Bhushan, B. (2010), “Boundary Slip and Nanobubble Study in Micro/Nanofluidics with Atomic Force Microscope,” Soft Matter 6, 29–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Nanoprobe Laboratory for Bio/Nanotechnology and Biomimetics (NLBB)The Ohio State UniversityColumbusUSA

Personalised recommendations