Advertisement

Biomimetics pp 289-325 | Cite as

Strategies for Superliquiphobic/Philic Surfaces

  • Bharat BhushanEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Springer Series in Materials Science book series (SSMATERIALS, volume 279)

Abstract

Liquid repellent surfaces can be used for self-cleaning and antifouling from organic and biological contaminants both in air and underwater applications and can reduce fluid drag (Bhushan 2009). As a model surface in living nature for a liquid repellent surface in air, the upper side of the lotus leaf surface repels water (superhydrophobic) and is useful for self-cleaning and low adhesion applications (Barthlott and Neinhuis 1997; Bhushan and Jung 2011). As discussed in Chap.  4, the superhydrophobic properties of the leaf surfaces are achieved due to the presence of a hierarchical structure created by a microstructure formed by papillose epidermal cells covered with three dimensional (3-D) epicuticular hydrophobic wax nanotubules, shown in Fig. 10.1a. The wax layer makes the surface hydrophobic and the hierarchical structure makes the surface superhydrophobic. This structure causes water droplets to roll off the leaf surface and take contaminants with them to keep the leaf clean. The lower side of the lotus leaf does not contain 3-D wax crystals (Neinhuis and Barthlott 1997), and consists of rather flat, tabular, and slightly convex papillae (Koch et al. 2009). Therefore, the bottom surface is hydrophilic, but superoleophobic in water, with a contact angle of 155° with n-hexane oil, Fig. 10.1b (Cheng et al. 2011). The lotus leaf exhibits a so-called “Janus interface” (named for the two-faced Roman god), with superhydrophobicity on the upper side, and superoleophobicity under water on the lower side (Cheng et al. 2011).

References

  1. Adamson A. V. (1990), Physical Chemistry of Surfaces, Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  2. Al-Sabagh, A. M., Abd-El-Bary, H. M., El-Ghazawy, R. A., Mishrif, M. R. and Hussein, B. M. (2011), “Surface Active and Thermodynamic Properties of Some Surfactants Derived from Locally Linear and Heavy Alkyl Benzene in Relation to Corrosion Inhibition Efficiency,” Mater. Corros. 62, 1015–1030.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anonymous (2015a), Silicone Fluid Technical Data, retrieved from http://www.shinetsusilicone-global.com/catalog/pdf/kf96_e.pdf, accessed July 26 2015.
  4. Anonymous (2015b), Fluorinert™ Electronic Liquid FC-72 retrieved from: http://multimedia.3m.com/mws/media/64892O/fluorinert-electronic-liquid-fc-72.pdf, accessed August 7 2015.
  5. Barthlott, W. and Neinhuis, C. (1997), “Purity of the Sacred Lotus, or Escape from Contamination in Biological Surfaces,” Planta 202, 1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bhurke, A. S., Askeland, P. A., and Drzal, L. T. (2007), “Surface Modification of Polycarbonate by Ultraviolet Radiation and Ozone,” J. Adhes. 83, 43–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bhushan, B. (2009), “Biomimetics: Lessons from Nature – An Overview,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 367, 1445–1486.Google Scholar
  8. Bhushan, B. and Jung, Y. C. (2011), “Natural and Biomimetic Artificial Surfaces for Superhydrophobicity, Self-Cleaning, Low Adhesion, and Drag Reduction,” Prog. Mater. Sci. 56, 1–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bhushan, B. and Martin, S. (2018), “Substrate-independent Superliquiphobic Coatings for Water, Oil, and Surfactant Repellency: An Overview,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 526, 90–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bhushan, B., Koch, K., and Jung, Y. C. (2008), “Nanostructures for Superhydrophobicity and Low Adhesion,” Soft Matter 4, 1799–1804.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bhushan, B., Jung, Y. C., and Koch, K. (2009), “Micro-, Nano- and Hierarchical Structures for Superhydrophobicity, Self-Cleaning and Low Adhesion,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 367, 1631–1672CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bixler, G. D. and Bhushan, B. (2012a), “Biofouling: Lessons from Nature,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 370, 2381–2417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bixler, G. D. and Bhushan, B. (2012b), “Bioinspired Rice Leaf and Butterfly Wing Surface Structures Combining Shark Skin and Lotus Effects,” Soft Matter 8, 11271–11284 (2012).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bixler, G.D. and Bhushan, B. (2013a), “Fluid Drag Reduction with Shark-skin Riblet Inspired Microstructured Surfaces,” (Invited), Adv. Func. Mater. 23, 4507–4528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bixler, G. D. and Bhushan, B. (2013b), “Fluid Drag Reduction and Efficient Self-Cleaning with Rice Leaf and Butterfly Wing Bioinspired Surfaces,” Nanoscale 5, 7685–7710.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bohn, H. F. and Federle, W. (2004), “Insect Aquaplaning: Nepenthes Pitcher Plants Capture Prey with the Peristome, a Fully Wettable Water-lubricated Anisotropic Surface,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 101, 14138–14143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Brown, P. S. and Bhushan, B (2015a), “Mechanically Durable, Superoleophobic Coatings Prepared by Layer-by-Layer Technique for Anti-smudge and Oil–water Separation,” Sci. Rep. – Nature 5, 8701.Google Scholar
  18. Brown, P. S. and Bhushan, B. (2015b), “Mechanically Durable, Superomniphobic Coatings Prepared by Layer-by-Layer Technique for Self-cleaning and Anti-smudge,” J. Colloid Interf. Sci. 456, 210–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Brown, P. S. and Bhushan, B. (2015c), “Bioinspired, Roughness-Induced, Water and Oil Super-philic and Super-phobic Coatings Prepared by Adaptable Layer-by-Layer Technique,” Sci. Rep. – Nature 5, 14030.Google Scholar
  20. Brown, P. S. and Bhushan, B. (2016a), “Designing Bioinspired Superoleophobic Surfaces,” APL Mater. 4, 015703.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Brown, P. S. and Bhushan, B. (2016b), “Durable, Superoleophobic Polymer-nanoparticle Composite Surfaces with Re-entrant Geometry via Solvent-induced Phase Transformation,” Sci. Rep. – Nature 6, 21048.Google Scholar
  22. Brown, P. S. and Bhushan, B. (2016c), “Durable Superoleophobic Polypropylene Surfaces,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 374, 20160193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Brown, P. S. and Bhushan, B. (2016d), “Bioinspired Materials for Water Supply and Management: Water Collection, Water Purification and Separation of Water from Oil,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 374, 20160135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Brown, P. S. and Bhushan, B. (2017a), “Liquid-impregnated Porous Polypropylene Surfaces for Liquid Repellency,” J. Colloid Interf. Sci. 487, 437–443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Brown, P. S. and Bhushan, B. (2017b), “Mechanically Durable Liquid-impregnated Honeycomb Surfaces,” Sci. Rep. – Nature 7, 6083.Google Scholar
  26. Bunshah, R. F. (1994), Handbook of Deposition Technologies for Films and Coatings: Science, Technology and Applications, Applied Science Publishers, Westwood, New Jersey.Google Scholar
  27. Cheng, Q., Li, M., Zheng, Y., Su, B., Wang, S. and Jiang, L. (2011), “Janus Interface Materials: Superhydrophobic Air/solid Interface and Superoleophobic Water/solid Interface Inspired by a Lotus Leaf,” Soft Matter 7, 5948–5951.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dean, B. and Bhushan, B. (2010), “Shark-Skin Surfaces for Fluid-Drag Reduction in Turbulent Flow: A Review,” Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. A 368, 4775–4806.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Efimenko, K., Wallace, W. E. and Genzer, J. (2002), “Surface Modification of Sylgard-184 Poly(dimethylsiloxane) Networks by Ultraviolet and Ultraviolet/ozone Treatment,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 254, 306–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Flamm, D. L. and Auciello, O. (2012), Plasma Deposition Treatment, and Etching of Polymers: The Treatment and Etching of Polymers, ed. R. d’Agostino, Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  31. Genzer, J. and Efimenko, K. (2006), “Recent Developments in Superhydrophobic Surfaces and Their Relevance to Marine Fouling: A Review,” Biofouling 22, 339–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Haynes, W. M. (2014), CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 95th Ed., Taylor and Francis Group, Boca Raton, FL.Google Scholar
  33. Hensel, R., Helbig, R., Aland, S., Braun, H.-G., Voig, A., Neinhuis, C. and Werner, C. (2013) “Wetting Resistance at Its Topographical Limit: The Benefit of Mushroom and Serif T Structures,” Langmuir 29, 1100–1112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Im, M., Im, H., Lee, J.-H., Yoon, J.-B. and Choi, Y.-K. (2010), “A Robust Superhydrophobic and Superoleophobic Surface with Inverse-Trapezoidal Microstructures on a Large Transparent Flexible Substrate,” Soft Matter 6, 1401–1404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Israelachvili, J. N. (1992), Intermolecular and Surface Forces, second edition, Academic Press, London, U. K.Google Scholar
  36. Jasper, J. J., (1972), The Surface Tension of Pure Liquid Compounds,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 1, 841–1009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Jung, Y. C. and Bhushan, B. (2009), “Wetting Behavior of Water and Oil Droplets in Three Phase Interfaces for Hydrophobicity/philicity and Oleophobicity/philicity,” Langmuir 25, 14165–14173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kang, S. M., Kim, S. M., Kim, H. N., Kwak, M. K., Tahk, D. H. and Suh, K. Y. (2012), “Robust Superomniphobic Surfaces with Mushroom-like Micropillar Arrays,” Soft Matter 8, 8563–8568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Koch, K., Bhushan, B., and Barthlott, W. (2009), “Multifunctional Surface Structures of Plants: An Inspiration for Biomimetics,” Prog. Mater. Sci. 54, 137–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Lee, M.-T., Hsueh, C.-C., Freund, M. S. and Ferguson, G. S. (1998) “Air Oxidation of Self-Assembled Monolayers on Polycrystalline Gold: The Role of the Gold Substrate,” Langmuir 14, 6419–6423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lee, S. E., Kim, H. J., Lee, S. H., and Choi, D. G. (2013), “Superamphiphobic Surface by Nanotransfer Molding and Isotropic Etching,” Langmuir 29, 8070–8075.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Li, L., Wang, Y., Gallaschun, C., Risch, T. and Sun, J. (2012), “Why Can a Nanometer-Thick Polymer Coated Surface be More Wettable to Water than to Oil?” J. Mater. Chem. 22, 16719–1672.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Liu, M. J., Want, S. T., Wei, Z. X., Song, Y. L, and Jiang, L. (2009), “Bioinspired Design of a Superoleophobic and Low Adhesive Water/Solid Interface,” Adv. Mater. 21, 665–669.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Liu, T. and Kim, C. J. (2014), “Turning a Surface Super-repellant Even to Completely Wetting Liquids,” Science 346, 1096–1100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Manning, R. and Ewing, J. (2009), Temperature in Cars Survey, Royal Automobile Club of Queensland Limited (RACQ) Vehicle Testing Authority (Brisbane, Australia). https://www.racq.com.au/~/media/pdf/racq%20pdfs/cars%20and%20driving/driving/0814_temperature_in_cars_survey_2009.ashx.
  46. Martin, S. and Bhushan, B. (2017), “Transparent, Wear-resistant, Superhydrophobic and Superoleophobic Poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) Surfaces,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 488, 118–126 (2017).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Martin, S., Brown, P. S., and Bhushan, B. (2017), “Fabrication Techniques for Bioinspired, Mechanically-durable, Superliquiphobic Surfaces for Water, Oil, and Surfactant Repellency,” Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. 241, 1–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Muthiah, P., Bhushan, B., Yun, K. and Kondo, H. (2013), “Dual-Layered-Coated Mechanically-Durable Superomniphobic Surfaces With Anti-Smudge Properties,” J. Colloid Interface. Sci. 409, 227–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Neinhuis, C. and Barthlott, W. (1997), “Characterization and Distribution of Water-Repllent, Self-Cleaning Plant Surfaces,”Annals of Botany 79, 667–677.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Nishino, T., Meguro, M., Nakamae, K., Matsushita, M., and Ueda, Y. (1999), “The Lowest Surface Free Energy Based on –CF3 Alignment,” Langmuir 15, 4321–4323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Nosonovsky, M. and Bhushan, B. (2008), Multiscale Dissipative Mechanisms and Hierarchical Surfaces: Friction, Superhydrophobicity, and Biomimetics, Springer, Heidelberg, Germany.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Park, E. J., Carroll, G. T., Turro, N. J. and Koberstein, J. T. (2009), “ Shedding Light on Surfaces-Using Photons to Transform and Pattern Material Surfaces, Soft Matter 5, 36–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Qian, B. and Shen, Z. (2005), “Fabrication of Superhydrophobic Surfaces by Dislocation-Selective Chemical Etching on Aluminum, Copper, and Zinc Substrates,” Langmuir 21, 9007–9009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Qu, M., Zhang, B., Song, S., Chen, L., Zhang, J. and Cao, X. (2007), “Fabrication of Superhydrophobic Surfaces on Engineering Materials by a Solution-Immersion Process,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 593–596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Rakitov, R. and Gorb, S. N. (2013), “Brochosomal coats turn leafhopper (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae) integument to superhydrophobic state,” Proc. R. Soc. B 280, 20122391, pp 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Ross, J. and Epstein, M. B. (1958), “Surface Tension and Surface Transition of Dilute Aqueous Solutions of Lauryl Alcohol and Sodium Lauryl Sulfate”, J. Phys. Chem 62, 533–535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Song, J., Huang, S., Hu, K., Lu, Y., Liu, X. and Xu, W. (2013), “Fabrication of Superoleophobic Surfaces on Al Substrates,” J. Mater. Chem. A 1,14783–14789.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Soontravanich, S., Munoz, J. A. and Scamehorn, J. F. (2008), “Interaction Between an Anionic and an Amphoteric Surfactant. Part I: Monomer–micelle Equilibrium,” J. Surfact. Deterg. 11, 251–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Tajima, K., Tsutsui, T., and Murata, H. (1980), “Thermodynamic Relation of Interfacial Tensions in Three Fluid Phases,” Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 53, 1165–1166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Tuteja, A., Choi, W., Mabry, J. M., Mckinley, G. H., and Cohen, R. E. (2008), “Robust Omniphobic Surfaces,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105, 18200–18205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Ulman, A. (1996), “Formation and Structure of Self-Assembled Monolayers,” Chem. Rev. 96, 1533–1554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Vig, J. R. (1985), “UV/ozone Cleaning Surfaces,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 3, 1027–1034.Google Scholar
  63. Wang, Y. and Bhushan, B. (2015), “Wear-Resistant and Antismudge Superoleophobic Coating on Polyethylene Terephthalate Substrate Using SiO2 Nanoparticles,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interf. 7, 743–755.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Wu, S. (1979), “Surface-Tension of Solids-Equation of State Analysis,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 71, 605–609.Google Scholar
  65. Zhao, H., Law, K.-Y. and Sambhy, V. (2011), “Fabrication, Surface Properties, and Origin of Superoleophobicity for a Model Textured Surface,” Langmuir 27, 5927–5935.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Nanoprobe Laboratory for Bio/Nanotechnology and Biomimetics (NLBB)The Ohio State UniversityColumbusUSA

Personalised recommendations