Governmentality and Post-Fordist Art Education
This chapter bears down on neoliberal ideology’s influence on contemporary conceptions of creativity and its education. Under the present post-Fordist system of economic production, artists—with their drive to innovate, flexible production practices, and tolerance for precarity—are being upheld as ideal workers. The resulting requirements of immaterial labor have obliged the restructuring of education through forms of neoliberal governmentality that set about instilling specific values and urgencies manifesting in the governmentalization of learning and economization of education. In my consideration of the convergence of these pressures I focus on how the Partnership for 21st Century Skills mandates the acceleration of post-Fordist economic goals for art education through government of self and others that greatly reduces the possibilities for the nurturing of creativity.
KeywordsCreativity Neoliberalism Governmentality Post-Fordism Foucault
- Boltanski, L., & Chiapello, È. (2005). The new spirit of capitalism (3rd ed.). (G. Elliott, Trans.). New York: Verso. (Original work published in 1999).Google Scholar
- Brown, W. (2015). Undoing the demos: Neoliberalism’s stealth revolution. Brooklyn: Zone Books.Google Scholar
- Center for Cultural Innovation for National Endowment for the Arts. (2016). Creativity connects: Trends and conditions affecting U.S. artists. Washington, DC: National Endowment for the Arts. Retrieved from https://www.arts.gov/sites/default/files/Creativity-Connects-Final-Report.pdf. Accessed 19 Aug 2017.
- De Bruyne, P. (2012). Turbulence in arts paradise some notes on the future of art schools. In P. De Bruyne & P. Gielen (Eds.), Being an artist in post-Fordist times (2nd ed., pp. 147–156). NAi Publishers: Rotterdam.Google Scholar
- Florida, R. (2002). The rise of the creative class. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
- Florida, R. (2005). Cities and the creative class. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Florida, R. (2008). Who’s your city? How the creative economy is making where to live the most important decision of your life. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
- Foucault, M. (2009). Security, territory, population: Lectures at the College De France 1977–1978 (G. Burchell, Trans.). New York: Palgrave Macmillan. (Original work published in 2004.)Google Scholar
- Gielen, P. (2010). The murmuring of the artistic multitude; Global art, memory and post-Fordism. Amsterdam: Valiz.Google Scholar
- Gill, R., & Pratt, A. (2013). Precarity and cultural work in the social factory? Immaterial labour, precariousness and cultural work. ONCURATING.org, 1(16), 26–40.Google Scholar
- Hardt, M., & Negri, A. (2000). Empire. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
- Harvey, D. (1989). The condition of postmodernity. Maiden: Blackwell.Google Scholar
- Howes, S. A. (2016, April 21). Artists, the original gig economy workers, have more rights than they think. Retrieved from https://www.arts.gov/partnerships/creativity-connects/report/artists-the-original-gig-economy-workers-more-rights-than-they-think. Accessed 19 Aug 2017.
- Lazzarato, M. (1996). Immaterial labor. (P. Colilli & E. Emery, Trans.) In M. Hardt & P. Virno (Eds.), Radical thought in Italy: A potential politics (pp. 133–147). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
- Léger, M. J. (2013). For the de-incapacitation of community art practice. ONCURATING.org, 1(16), 51–57.Google Scholar
- Lorey, I. (2006). Governmentality and self-precarization: On the normalization of cultural producers (L. Rosenblatt & D. Fink, Trans.). Transveral. Retrieved from http://eipcp.net/transversal/1106/lorey/en/print. Accessed 27 July 2017.
- Martin, S. (2008). Pedagogy of human capital. Mute, 2(8). Retrieved from http://www.metamute.org/editorial/articles/pedagogy-human-capital. Accessed 27 July 2017.
- McRobbie, A. (2007). The Los Angelisation of London Three short-waves of young people’s micro-economies of culture and creativity in the UK. Transversal. Retrieved from http://eipcp.net/transversal/0207/mcrobbie/en. Accessed 27 July 2017.
- McRobbie, A. (2013). “Everyone is creative”: Artists as new economy pioneers? ONCURATING.org, 1(16), 58–61. (Original work published in 2001).Google Scholar
- Ozgun, A. (2011). Creative industries: Neo-liberalism as mass deception. In M. J. Léger (Ed.), Culture and contestation in the new century (pp. 106–124). Chicago: Intellect.Google Scholar
- Partnership for 21st Century Learning. (2015). Framework for 21st Century Learning. Washington, DC: Partnership for 21st Century Learning. Retrieved from http://www.p21.org/storage/documents/P21_framework_0515.pdf. Accessed 27 July 2017.
- Partnership for 21st Century Skills. (n.d.). 21st century skills map. The arts. Washington, DC: Partnership for 21st Century Learning. Retrieved from http://www.p21.org/storage/documents/P21_arts_map_final.pdf. Accessed 27 July 2017.
- Penzin, A. (2010). The Soviets of the multitude: On collectivity and collective work. Mediations, 25(1), 81–92.Google Scholar
- Relyea, L. (2013). Your everyday art world. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
- Tepper, S. J. (2016, March 31). What does it mean to sustain a career in the gig economy? [Blog post]. Retrieved from https://www.arts.gov/partnerships/creativity-connects/report/what-does-it-mean-to-sustain-a-career-in-the-gig-economy. Accessed 19 Aug 2017.
- Virno, P. (2012). The dismeasure of art. An interview with Paolo Virno/Interviewers S. Lavaert & P. Gielen. In P. Gielen & P. De Bruyne (Eds.), Being an artist in post-Fordist times (2nd ed., pp. 19–46).Google Scholar
- Woronkowicz, J. (2016, May 12). Do artists have a competitive edge in the gig economy? [Blog post]. Retrieved from https://www.arts.gov/partnerships/creativity-connects/report/do-artists-have-a-competitive-edge-in-the-gig-economy. Accessed 19 Aug 2017.