Advertisement

Mapping Ecosystem Services: From Biophysical Processes to (Mis)Uses

  • Simon Dufour
  • Xavier Arnauld de Sartre
  • Monica Castro
  • Michel Grimaldi
  • Solen Le Clec’h
  • Johan Oszwald
Chapter

Abstract

Critical Physical Geography has two fundamental ambitions: to link deeply biophysical processes and social relationships and to increase reflexivity in scientific practice. Thus, it provides a powerful framework to analyze how general concepts such as ecosystem services are used in natural science and environmental management. Over the last decade, this concept has become a crucial component for justifying and implementing environmental policies. In this chapter, we aim to demonstrate the relevance of a Critical Physical Geography for improving identification of potentials and limitations of the concept of ecosystem services. We demonstrate that a thorough understanding of the biophysical processes that generate services and indicator choices has a strong influence on the ability to quantify and to map them.

Notes

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank N. Jégou for a very helpful advice on statistical analysis, the AMAZ ES team (P. Lavelle, T. Decaens, etc.) for field data and anonymous reviewers. This research was funded by the French ANR project “Approche géographique des services écosystémiques” (2011–2013) and by a grant to S. Le Clec’h from the Institut des Amériques.

References

  1. Alcorn, J.B. 2000. Keys to unleash mapping’s good magic. Participatory Learning and Action Notes 39: 10–13.Google Scholar
  2. Arnauld de Sartre, X., M. Castro Larrañaga, B. Hubert, and C. Kull. 2014. Modernité écologique et services écosystémiques. In Political Ecology Des Services Écosystémiques, ed. X. Arnauld de Sartre, M. Castro, S. Dufour, and J. Oszwald, 31–47. Bruxelles: PIE Peter Lang.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barnaud, C., and M. Antona. 2014. Deconstructing ecosystem services: Uncertainties and controversies around a socially constructed concept. Geoforum 56: 113–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Boyd, J., and S. Banzhaf. 2007. What are ecosystem services? The need for standardized environmental accounting units. Ecological Economics 63: 616–626.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bryan, J. 2011. Walking the line: Participatory mapping, indigenous rights, and neoliberalism. Geoforum 42: 40–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Burkhard, B., F. Krolla, S. Nedkov, and F. Müller. 2012. Mapping ecosystem service supply, demand and budgets. Ecological Indicators 21: 17–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Castro Larrañaga, M., and X. Arnauld de Sartre. 2014. De la biodiversité aux services écosystémiques. Approche quantitative de la généalogie d’un dispositif. In Political Ecology Des Services Écosystémiques, ed. X. Arnauld de Sartre, M. Castro, S. Dufour, and J. Oszwald, 49–81. Bruxelles: PIE Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  8. Chopra, K.R., Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (Program), and Responses Working Group. 2005. In Ecosystems and human well-being: Policy responses: Findings of the Responses Working Group of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, ed. Kanchan Chopra et al. Washington, DC: The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Series, Island Press.Google Scholar
  9. Clec’h, S.L., J. Oszwald, T. Decaens, T. Desjardins, S. Dufour, M. Grimaldi, N. Jegou, and P. Lavelle. 2016. Mapping multiple ecosystem services indicators: Toward an objective-oriented approach. Ecological Indicators 69: 508–521.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Costanza, R., R. d’Arge, R. de Groot, S. Farber, M. Grasso, B. Hannon, S. Naeem, et al. 1997. The value of the world’s ecosystem services and natural capital. Nature 387: 253–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Crampton, J. 2001. Maps as social constructions: Power, communication and visualisation. Progress in Human Geography 25: 235–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Crampton, J.W. 2009. Cartography: Performative, participatory, political. Progress in Humen Geography 33: 840–848.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Crampton, J.W., and J. Krygier. 2001. An introduction to critical cartography. ACME: An International E-Journal for Critical Geographies 4: 11–33.Google Scholar
  14. Crossman, N.D., B. Burkhard, S. Nedkov, L. Willemen, K. Petz, I. Palomo, E.G. Drakou, et al. 2013. A blueprint for mapping and modelling ecosystem services. Ecosystem Services 4: 4–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Daily, G.C., and P.A. Matson. 2008. From theory to implementation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105: 9455–9456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Davies, Z.G., J.L. Edmondson, A. Heinemeyer, J.R. Leake, and K.J. Gaston. 2011. Mapping an urban ecosystem service: Quantifying above-ground carbon storage at a city-wide scale: Urban above-ground carbon storage. Journal of Applied Ecology 48: 1125–1134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Del Casino, V.J., and S.P. Hanna. 2006. Beyond the “binaries”: A methodological intervention for interrogating maps as representational practices. ACME: An International E-Journal for Critical Geographies 4: 34–56.Google Scholar
  18. Dominati, E., M. Patterson, and A. Mackay. 2010. A framework for classifying and quantifying the natural capital and ecosystem services of soils. Ecological Economics 69: 1858–1868.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dufour, S., X. Arnauld de Sartre, M. Castro Larrañaga, S. le Clec’h, and J. Oszwald. 2014. Cartographie, services écosystémiques et gestion environnementale: entre neutralité technicienne et outil d’empowerment. In Political Ecology Des Services Écosystémiques, ed. X. Arnauld de Sartre, M. Castro, S. Dufour, and J. Oszwald, 225–246. Bruxelles: PIE Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  20. Dymond, J.R., A.-G.E. Ausseil, J.C. Ekanayake, and M.U.F. Kirschbaum. 2012. Tradeoffs between soil, water, and carbon—A national scale analysis from New Zealand. Journal of Environmental Management 95: 124–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Eigenbrod, F., P.R. Armsworth, B.J. Anderson, A. Heinemeyer, S. Gillings, D.B. Roy, C.D. Thomas, and K.J. Gaston. 2010. The impact of proxy-based methods on mapping the distribution of ecosystem services. Journal of Applied Ecology 47: 377–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ernstson, H., and S. Sörlin. 2013. Ecosystem services as technology of globalization: On articulating values in urban nature. Ecological Economics 86: 274–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. European Commission, Directorate-General for the Environment. 2013. Mapping and assessment of ecosystems and their services an analytical framework for ecosystem assessments under action 5 of the EU biodiversity strategy to 2020: Discussion paper—Final, April 2013. Luxembourg: Publications Office.Google Scholar
  24. Fairhead, J., and M. Leach. 1996. Misreading the African landscape: Society and ecology in a forest-savanna mosaic, African studies series. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  25. Gomez-Baggethun, E., and M. Ruiz-Perez. 2011. Economic valuation and the commodification of ecosystem services. Progress in Physical Geography 35: 613–628.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gould, P., and R. White. 1974. Mental maps. Harmondsworth: Penguin.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Grimaldi, M., J. Oszwald, S. Dolédec, M. del P. Hurtado, I. de Souza Miranda, X. Arnauld de Sartre, W.S. de Assis, et al. 2014. Ecosystem services of regulation and support in Amazonian pioneer fronts: Searching for landscape drivers. Landscape Ecology 29: 311–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Harley, J.B. 2001. The new nature of maps: Essays in the history of cartography. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press ed.Google Scholar
  29. Harris, L.M., and H.D. Hazen. 2006. Power of maps: (Counter) mapping for conservation. ACME: An International E-Journal for Critical Geographies 4: 99–130.Google Scholar
  30. Harwell, E. 2000. Remote sensibilities: Discourses of technology and the making of Indonesia’s natural disaster. Development and Change 31: 307–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hauck, J., C. Görg, R. Varjopuro, O. Ratamäki, J. Maes, H. Wittmer, and K. Jax. 2013. “Maps have an air of authority”: Potential benefits and challenges of ecosystem service maps at different levels of decision making. Ecosystem Services 4: 25–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hausermann, H. 2012. From polygons to politics: Everyday practice and environmental governance in Veracruz, Mexico. Geoforum 43: 1002–1013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hewson, J., M. Steininger, and S. Pesmajoglou. 2013. REDD+ Measurement, Reporting and Verification (MRV) Manual. Washington, DC: USAID-supported Forest Carbon, Markets and Communities Program.Google Scholar
  34. Kandziora, M., B. Burkhard, and F. Müller. 2013. Mapping provisioning ecosystem services at the local scale using data of varying spatial and temporal resolution. Ecosystem Services 4: 47–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kareiva, P.M., ed. 2011. Natural capital: Theory & practice of mapping ecosystem services. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Karsenty, A., and D. Ezzine de Blas. 2014. Du mésusage des métaphores. Les paiements pour services environnementaux sont-ils des instruments de marchandisation de la nature? In L’instrumentation de L’action Publique, ed. Ch. Halpern, P. Lascoumes, and P. Le Galès, 161–189. Paris: Presses de Sciences Po.Google Scholar
  37. Kronenberg, J. 2015. Betting against human ingenuity: The perils of the economic valuation of nature’s services. BioScience 65: 1096–1099.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Lamarque, P., F. Quétier, and S. Lavorel. 2011. The diversity of the ecosystem services concept and its implications for their assessment and management. Comptes Rendus Biologies 334: 441–449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Lascoumes, P., and P. Le Galès, eds. 2004. Gouverner par les instruments, Gouvernances. Paris: Presses de la Fondation nationale des sciences politiques.Google Scholar
  40. Lave, R., M.W. Wilson, E.S. Barron, C. Biermann, M.A. Carey, C.S. Duvall, L. Johnson, et al. 2014. Intervention: Critical Physical Geography: Critical Physical Geography. The Canadian Geographer/Le Géographe canadien 58: 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lavelle, P., T. Decaëns, M. Aubert, S. Barot, M. Blouin, F. Bureau, P. Margerie, P. Mora, and J.-P. Rossi. 2006. Soil invertebrates and ecosystem services. European Journal of Soil Biology 42: S3–S15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lavorel, S., A. Arneth, A. Bayer, A. Bondeau, S. Lautenbach, N. Marba, A. Ruiz, et al. 2014. Transferable geo-referenced metrics and GIS based quantification functions—Pathways to the incorporation of biodiversity into ecosystem service biophysical assessment. Operational Potential of Ecosystem Research Applications. Unpublished report, available at http://operas-project.eu/.
  43. le Clec’h, S., S. Dufour, J. Oszwald, M. Grimaldi, and N. Jégou. 2014. Spatialiser des services écosystémiques, un enjeu méthodologique et plus encore. In Political Ecology Des Services Écosystémiques, ed. X. Arnauld de Sartre, M. Castro, S. Dufour, and J. Oszwald, 205–224. Bruxelles: PIE Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  44. Maris, V. 2014. Nature à vendre: les limites des services écosystémiques. Paris: Quae éditions.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Milanesi, J. 2010. Éthique et évaluation monétaire de l’environnement: la nature est-elle soluble dans l’utilité? VertigO 10,  https://doi.org/10.4000/vertigo.10050.
  46. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (Program). 2005. Ecosystems and human well-being: Synthesis. Washington, DC: Island Press.Google Scholar
  47. Naidoo, R., A. Balmford, R. Costanza, B. Fisher, R.E. Green, B. Lehner, T.R. Malcolm, and T.H. Ricketts. 2008. Global mapping of ecosystem services and conservation priorities. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105: 9495–9500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. National Research Council (U.S.). 2005. Valuing ecosystem services: Toward better environmental decision-making. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.Google Scholar
  49. Nemec, K.T., and C. Raudsepp-Hearne. 2012. The use of geographic information systems to map and assess ecosystem services. Biodiversity and Conservation 22: 1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Norgaard, R.B. 2010. Ecosystem services: From eye-opening metaphor to complexity blinder. Ecological Economics 69: 1219–1227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Noucher, M. 2013. Introduction. L’Information géographique 77: 6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Pagella, T.F., and F.L. Sinclair. 2014. Development and use of a typology of mapping tools to assess their fitness for supporting management of ecosystem service provision. Landscape Ecology 29: 383–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Peluso, N.L. 1995. Whose woods are these? Counter-mapping forest territories in Kalimantan, Indonesia. Antipode 27: 383–406.Google Scholar
  54. Pickles, J. 1994. Ground truth: The social implications of geographic information systems. New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  55. ———. 2004. A history of spaces: Cartographic reason, mapping, and the geo-coded world. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  56. Portela, R., and I. Rademacher. 2001. A dynamic model of patterns of deforestation and their effect on the ability of the Brazilian Amazonia to provide ecosystem services. Ecological Modelling 143: 116–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Potschin, M., and R. Haines-Young. 2011. Introduction to the special issue: Ecosystem services. Progress in Physical Geography 35: 571–574.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Primmer, E., and E. Furman. 2012. Operationalising ecosystem service approaches for governance: Do measuring, mapping and valuing integrate sector-specific knowledge systems? Ecosystem Services 1: 85–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Rajão, R. 2013. Representations and discourses: The role of local accounts and remote sensing in the formulation of Amazonia’s environmental policy. Environmental Science & Policy 30: 60–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Reid, W.V., and Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (Program). 2006. Bridging scales and knowledge systems: Concepts and applications in ecosystem assessment, A contribution to the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. Washington, DC: Island Press.Google Scholar
  61. Ruckelshaus, M., E. McKenzie, H. Tallis, A. Guerry, G. Daily, P. Kareiva, S. Polasky, et al. 2013. Notes from the field: Lessons learned from using ecosystem service approaches to inform real-world decisions. Ecological Economics.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2013.07.009.
  62. Tadaki, M., W. Allen, and J. Sinner. 2015a. Revealing ecological processes or imposing social rationalities? The politics of bounding and measuring ecosystem services. Ecological Economics 118: 168–176.Google Scholar
  63. Tadaki, M., G. Brierley, M. Dickson, R. Le Heron, and J. Salmond. 2015b. Cultivating critical practices in physical geography: Cultivating critical practices in physical geography. The Geographical Journal 181: 160–171.Google Scholar
  64. Unwin, G.L., and P.E. Kriedemann. 2000. Principles and processes of carbon sequestration by trees, Technical paper/Forest Research and Development Division. Sidney: State Forests of New South Wales.Google Scholar
  65. Waage, S., K. Armstrong, and L. Hwang. 2011. New business decision-making aids in an era of complexity, scrutiny, and uncertainty. Tools for identifying, assessing, and valuing ecosystem services. BSR’s Ecosystem Services, Tools & Markets Working Group. Unpublished report, available at https://www.bsr.org.
  66. Willemen, L., B. Burkhard, N. Crossman, E.G. Drakou, and I. Palomo. 2015. Editorial: Best practices for mapping ecosystem services. Ecosystem Services 13: 1–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Wolff, S., C.E.J. Schulp, and P.H. Verburg. 2015. Mapping ecosystem services demand: A review of current research and future perspectives. Ecological Indicators 55: 159–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Wood, D. 1992. The power of maps. New York/London: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  69. Wood, D., and J. Fels. 1986. Designs on signs/Myths and meaning in maps. Cartographica 24: 54–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Wood, D., and J. Krygier. 2009. Maps and protest. In International encyclopedia of human geography, ed. R. Kitchin and N. Thrift, 436–441. Oxford: Elsevier.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Zhu, X., S. Pfueller, P. Whitelaw, and C. Winter. 2010. Spatial differentiation of landscape values in the Murray river region of Victoria, Australia. Environmental Management 45: 896–911.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Simon Dufour
    • 1
  • Xavier Arnauld de Sartre
    • 2
  • Monica Castro
    • 2
  • Michel Grimaldi
    • 3
  • Solen Le Clec’h
    • 4
  • Johan Oszwald
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of GeographyUniversité Rennes 2/CNRS LETGRennesFrance
  2. 2.Institut Claude Laugénie, CNRS PASSAGESPauFrance
  3. 3.IRD BIOEMCOBondyFrance
  4. 4.ETH ZurichZurichSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations