Adaptation Strategies to Sustain Osmanabadi Goat Production in a Changing Climate Scenario

  • Veerasamy Sejian
  • Govindan Krishnan
  • Madiajagan Bagath
  • Shalini Vaswani
  • Mallenahally K. Vidya
  • Joy Aleena
  • Vijai P. Maurya
  • Raghavendra Bhatta
Chapter

Abstract

Small ruminants are an integral part of farming systems in the tropical, subtropical, and arid regions of the world. Goats are considered suitable animals in such regions, since they were the first domesticated animals in the hot and arid zones of the world. Goats are considered as an ideal animal model to meet the global demands for animal protein in the changing climate scenario. Understanding the multifaceted impacts of heat stress on goat production is the prerequisite for the development of appropriate strategies to sustain goat production in the face of climate change. The identification of thermo-tolerant genes can help to improve the resilience capacity of existing non-descript goat breeds through marker-assisted selection. The strategies to augment goat production during extreme climatic conditions may be broadly categorized under management and nutritional strategies. The management strategies for Osmanabadi goat production under changing climate scenario comprise of housing, environment reproductive and health management. Technological interventions such as estrus synchronization, artificial insemination, and embryo transfer protocols may help to improve the reproductive efficiency in indigenous breeds such as Osmanabadi goats. The nutritional interventions comprise of mineral, electrolyte and antioxidant supplementation, utilization of unconventional feed resources, feeding tree foliage and leaves, fat and feed additives supplementation. Efforts are also needed to understand the occurrences and epidemiology of diseases under climate change and appropriate management should be provided by health and prevention programs.

References

  1. Abecia JA, Forcada F, González-Bulnes A (2011) Pharmaceutical control of reproduction in sheep and goats. Vet Clin Food Anim Prac 27:67–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Al-Tamimi HJ (2007) Thermoregulatory response of goat kids subjected to heat stress. Small Rumin Res 71(1):280–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bagath M, Sejian V, Archana SS et al (2016) Effect of dietary intake on somatotrophic axis–related gene expression and endocrine profile in Osmanabadi goats. J Vet Behav 13:72–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baldassarre H, Karatzas CN (2004) Advanced assisted reproduction technologies in goats. Anim Reprod Sci 82:255–266CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Baldassarre HB, Wang N, Kafidi C et al (2002) Advances in the production and propagation of transgenic goats using laparoscopic ovum pick-up and in vitro embryo production technologies. Theriogenology 57(1):275–284CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Banerjee D, Upadhyay RC, Chaudhary UB et al (2014) Seasonal variation in expression pattern of genes under HSP70: seasonal variation in expression pattern of genes under HSP70 family in heat- and cold-adapted goats (Capra hircus). Cell Stress Chaperon 19(3):401–408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bari F, Khalid M, Haresign W et al (2003) Factors affecting the survival of sheep embryos after transfer within a MOET program. Theriogenology 59(5):1265–1275CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Battini M, Barbieri S, Fioni L et al (2016) Feasibility and validity of animal-based indicators for on-farm welfare assessment of thermal stress in dairy goats. Int J Biometeorol 60(2):289–296CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Beatty DT, Barnes A, Fleming PA et al (2008) The effect of fleece on core and rumen temperature in sheep. J Therm Biol 33(8):437–443CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bogdan L, Groza I, Ciupe S et al (2008) Research concerning estrus induction and synchronization in anestrous (out of season) goats. Veterinary Medicine 65(2):91–95Google Scholar
  11. Burton H, Turner C (2003) Manure management: Treatment Strategies for Sustainable Agriculture, 2nd edn. Silsoe Research Institute, Lister and Durling Printers, Flitwick, Bedford, UKGoogle Scholar
  12. Chemineau P, Cognie Y (1991) Training manual on artificial insemination in sheep and goats. FAO, Rome, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  13. Choudhary KK, Kavya KM, Jerome A et al (2016) Advances in reproductive biotechnologies. Vet. World 9(4):388–395Google Scholar
  14. Delgadillo JA, Cortez ME, Duarte G et al (2004) Evidence that the photoperiod controls the annual changes in testosterone secretion, testicular and body weight in subtropical male goats. Reprod Nutr Dev 44(3):183–193CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Dunn RJ, Mead NE, Willett KM et al (2014) Analysis of heat stress in UK dairy cattle and impact on milk yields. Environ Res Lett 9(6):1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dutta TK, Rao SBN, Nawab Singh (2003) Technical report on Development and evaluation of milk replacers in kids under different geo-climatic regions of India. Central Institute for Research on goats, Makhdoom, Farah, Mathura, UPGoogle Scholar
  17. Fatet A, Pellicer-Rubio MT, Leboeuf B (2011) Reproductive cycle of goats. Anim Reprod Sci 124:211–219CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Godber OF, Wall R (2014) Livestock and food security: vulnerability to population growth and climate change. Global Change Biol 20(10):3092–3102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gupta M, Kumar S, Dangi SS et al (2013) Physiological, biochemical and molecular responses to thermal stress in goats. Int J Livest Res 3(2):27–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hassanin SH, Abdalla EB, Kotby EA et al (1996) Efficiency of asbestos shading for growth of Barki rams during hot summer. Small Rumin Res 20(3):199–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Imasuen JA, Ikhimioya I (2009) An assessment of the reproductive performance of estrus synchronised west African dwarf (WAD) does using medroxylprogestrone acetate (MPA). Afr J Biotechnol 8:103–106Google Scholar
  22. Jackson CG, Neville TL, Mercadante VRG et al (2014) Efficacy of various five-day estrous synchronization protocols. Small Rumin Res 120:100–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Jia W, Jia Z, Zhang W et al (2008) Effects of dietary zinc on performance, nutrient digestibility and plasma zinc status in Cashmere goats. Small Rumin Res 80(1):68–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Karim SA (1995) Nutritional aspects of meat production. Animal Nutrition Workers Conference (December 7th–9th), Compendium I (Review papers), Bombay, pp 86–94Google Scholar
  25. Kendall NR, Mackerzie AM, Tefler SB (2001) The effect of a copper cobalt and selenium sulphate soluble glass bolus given to grazing sheep. Livest Prod Sci 68(1):31–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Knights M, Singh-Knights D (2016) Use of controlled internal drug releasing (CIDR) devices to control reproduction in goats. Anim Sci J 87:1084–1089CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Knowles TG, Warriss PD, Vogel K (2014) Stress physiology of animals during transport. In: Granden T (ed) Livestock handling and transport: theories and applications. CABI, Nosworthy way, UK, pp 399–421Google Scholar
  28. Kosgey IS, Okeyo AM (2007) Genetic improvement of small ruminants in low-input, smallholder production systems: technical and infrastructural issues. Small Rumin Res 70(1):76–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lopes LS, Martins SR, Chizzotti ML et al (2014) Meat quality and fatty acid profile of Brazilian goats subjected to different nutritional treatments. Meat Sci 97(4):602–608CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Lu CD (1989) Effects of heat stress on goat production. Small Rumin Res 2(2):151–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Mackenzie D (1993) Goat husbandry, 5th edn. Faber & Faber Ltd London, UKGoogle Scholar
  32. McDowell LR (1989) Vitamins in animal nutrition: comparative aspects to human nutrition. Academic Press, London, pp 93–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Menchaca A, Barrera N, dos Santos Neto PC et al (2016) Advances and limitations of in vitro embryo production in sheep and goats. Anim Reprod 13(3):273–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Mohanarao GJ, Mukherjee A, Banerjee D et al (2014) HSP70 family genes and HSP27 expression in response to heat and cold stress in vitro in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of goat (Capra hircus). Small Rumin Res 116(2):94–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Nasar A, Rahman A, Abdullah RB et al (2008) A review of reproductive biotechnologies and their application in goat. Biotechnology 7(2):371–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Nienaber JA, Hahn GL (2007) Livestock production system management responses to thermal challenges. Int J Biometeorol 52(2):149–157CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Omontese BO, Rekwot PI, Ate IU et al (2016) An update on oestrus synchronisation of goats in Nigeria. Asian Pac J Reprod 5(2):96–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Osoro K, Ferreira LMM, García U et al (2017) Forage intake, digestibility and performance of cattle, horses, sheep and goats grazing together on an improved heathland. Anim Prod Sci 57(1):102–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ozawa M, Tabayashi D, Latief TA et al (2005) Alterations in follicular dynamics and steroidogenic abilities induced by heat stress during follicular recruitment in goats. Reproduction 129(5):621–630CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Palmquist DL, Mattos WRS (2011) Metabolismo de lipídeos. In: Berchielli TT, Pires AV, Oliveira SG (eds) Nutrição de Ruminantes. Jaboticabal, Funep, pp 299–322Google Scholar
  41. Patil NV, Mathur BK, Patel AK et al (2006) Growth performance of arid breed kids weaned at different ages and received on complete feed block. In: Proceedings of animal nutrition workers association conference, SKUAT, Jammu, September 15–17, pp 78Google Scholar
  42. Pellicer-Rubio MT, Leboeuf B, Bernelas D et al (2007) Highly synchronous and fertile reproductive activity induced by the male effect during deep anoestrus in lactating goats subjected to treatment with artificially long days followed by a natural photoperiod. Anim Reprod Sci 98(3):241–258CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Pendelton RJ, Young CR, Rorie RW et al (1992) Follicle stimulating hormone versus pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin for superovulation of dairy goats. Small Rum Res 8(3):217–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Raghavan GV, Krishna N, Reddy MR (1990) On farm research on the utilization of crop residues. In: Proceedings of the small ruminant production in India by the year 2000, 13–17 November, 1990, Tirupati, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  45. Rahman ANMA, Abudullah RB, Khadijah WEW (2008) A review of reproductive biotechnologies and their application in goat. Biotechnology 7(2):371–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Ramukhithi FV, Nedambale TL, Sutherland B et al (2012) Oestrous synchronisation and pregnancy rate following artificial insemination (AI) in South African indigenous goats. J Appl Anim Res 40(4):292–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Renaudeau D, Collin A, Yahav S et al (2012) Adaptation to hot climate and strategies to alleviate heat stress in livestock production. Animal 6(5):707–728CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Sanz Sampelayo MR (2002) Effects of concentrates with different contents of protected fat rich in PUFAs on the performance of lactating Granadina goats. 1. Feed intake, nutrient digestibility, N and energy utilization for milk production. Small Rumin Res 43(2):133–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Sejian V, Valtorta S, Gallardo M et al (2012) Ameliorative measures to counteract environmental stresses. In: Sejian V, Naqvi SMK, Ezeji T, Lakritz J, Lal R (eds) Environmental stress and amelioration in livestock production. Springer-Verlag GMbH Publisher, Germany, pp 153–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Sejian V, Singh AK, Sahoo A et al (2014) Effect of mineral mixture and antioxidant supplementation on growth, reproductive performance and adaptive capability of Malpura ewes subjected to heat stress. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr 98(1):72–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Sejian V, Bagath M, Parthipan S et al (2015a) Effect of different diet level on the physiological adaptability, biochemical and endocrine responses and relative hepatic HSP70 and HSP90 genes expression in Osmanabadi kids. JAgricSciTechnol A5:755–769Google Scholar
  52. Sejian V, Samal L, Haque N et al (2015b) Overview on adaptation, mitigation and amelioration strategies to improve livestock production under the changing climatic scenario. In: Sejian V, Gaughan J, Baumgard L, Prasad CS (eds) Climate change impact on livestock: adaptation and mitigation. Springer-Verlag GMbH Publisher, New Delhi, India, pp 359–398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Sejian V, Kumar D, Gaughan JB et al (2017) Effect of multiple environmental stressors on the adaptive capability of Malpura rams based on physiological responses in a semi-arid tropical environment. J Vet Behav 17:6–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Shaji S, Sejian V, Bagath M, Mech A, David ICG, Kurien EK, Varma G, Bhatta R (2016) Adaptive capability as indicated by behavioral and physiological responses, plasma HSP70 level and PBMC HSP70 mRNA expression in Osmanabadi goats subjected to combined (heat and nutritional) stressors. Int J Biometeorol 60:1311–1323Google Scholar
  55. Shaji S, Sejian V, Bagath M et al (2017) Summer season related heat and nutritional stresses on the adaptive capability of goats based on blood biochemical response and hepatic HSP70 gene expression. Biol Rhythm Res 48(1):65–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Sophia I, Sejian V, Bagath M et al (2016a) Quantitative expression of hepatic toll-like receptors 1–10 mRNA in Osmanabadi goats during different climatic stresses. Small Rumin Res 141:11–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Sophia I, Sejian V, Bagath M et al (2016b) Influence of different environmental stresses on various spleen toll like receptor genes expression in Osmanabadi goats. Asian J Biol Sci 10(4–5):224–234Google Scholar
  58. Stella AV, Paratte R, Valnegri L et al (2007) Effect of administration of live Saccharomyces cerevisiae on milk production, milk composition, blood metabolites, and faecal flora in early lactating dairy goats. Small Rumin Res 67(1):7–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Sunil Kumar BV, Singh G, Meur SK (2010) Effects of Addition of electrolyte and ascorbic acid in feed during heat stress in buffaloes. Asian-Aust J Anim Sci 23(7):880–888CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Toussaint G (1997) The housing of milk goats. Livest Prod Sci 49(2):151–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Tripathi MK, Chaturvedi OH, Karim SA et al (2007) Effect of different levels of concentrate allowances on rumen fluid pH, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen retention and growth performance of weaner lambs. Small Rumin Res 72(2):178–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Tripathi MK, Karim SA (2011) Effect of individual and mixed yeast culture feeding on growth performance, nutrient utilization and microbial protein synthesis in lambs. Anim Feed Sci Technol 155(2):163–178Google Scholar
  63. Vilariño M, Rubianes E, Menchaca A (2011) Re-use of intravaginal progesterone devices associated with the short-term protocol for times artificial insemination in goats. Theriogenology 75:1195–1200CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Wani AR, Khan MZ, Sofi KA et al (2012) Effect of cysteamine and epidermal growth factor (EGF) supplementation in maturation medium on in vitro maturation, fertilization and culturing of embryos in sheep. Small Rumin Res 106:160–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Waruiru RU (2006) The influence of supplementation with urea molasses blocks on weight gain and nematode infection of dairy calves in central Kenya. Vet Res Commun 28(4):307–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. West JW (1999) Nutritional strategies for managing the heat stressed dairy cow. J Anim Sci 77(2):21–35PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Veerasamy Sejian
    • 1
  • Govindan Krishnan
    • 1
  • Madiajagan Bagath
    • 1
  • Shalini Vaswani
    • 2
  • Mallenahally K. Vidya
    • 1
    • 3
  • Joy Aleena
    • 1
    • 4
  • Vijai P. Maurya
    • 5
  • Raghavendra Bhatta
    • 1
  1. 1.ICAR-National Institute of Animal Nutrition and PhysiologyBangaloreIndia
  2. 2.Department of Animal NutritionPandit Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Pashu Chikitsa Vigyan Vishwavidyalaya Evam Go Anusandhan Sansthan (DUVASU)MathuraIndia
  3. 3.Veterinary College, Karnataka Veterinary Animal and Fisheries Sciences UniversityBangaloreIndia
  4. 4.Academy of Climate Change Education and ResearchKerala Agricultural UniversityThrissurIndia
  5. 5.ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research InstituteBareillyIndia

Personalised recommendations