Advertisement

Making Physical Activity Interventions Acceptable to Older People

  • Angela Devereux-Fitzgerald
  • Laura McGowan
  • Rachael Powell
  • David P. French
Chapter

Abstract

For physical activity to be an acceptable part of older adults’ daily lives, we need to ensure that interventions and services are appropriate for this population. Within the broad group of older adults, there are vastly different needs due to variations in function and health which must be accommodated. All forms of physical activity have health benefits, not just moderate to vigorous activities, and should be encouraged. Despite these benefits, promoting physical activity as a source of improved health appears not to be very effective. Instead, enjoyment and social contact are fundamental to acceptability. Furthermore, services must base the promotion and delivery of interventions on research conducted with older adults, rather than assume that research findings with younger adults will be applicable.

References

  1. Allain, P., Nicoleau, S., Pinon, K., Etcharry-Bouyx, F., Barré, J., Berrut, G., Dubas, F., & Le Gall, D. (2005). Executive functioning in normal aging: A study of action planning using the Zoo Map Test. Brain and Cognition, 57(1), 4–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allan, J. L., Sniehotta, F. F., & Johnston, M. (2013). The best laid plans: Planning skill determines the effectiveness of action plans and implementation intentions. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 46(1), 114–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ashworth, N. L., Chad, K. E., Harrison, E. L., Reeder, B. A., & Marshall, S. C. (2005). Home versus center based physical activity programs in older adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 1, CD004017.Google Scholar
  4. Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84(2), 191–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bandura, A. (1994). Self-efficacy. In V. S. Ramachaudran (Ed.), Encyclopedia of human behavior (Vol. 4, pp. 71–81). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  6. Bandura, A. (1998). Health promotion from the perspective of social cognitive theory. Psychology and Health, 13, 623–649.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Campbell, F., Holmes, M., Everson-Hock, E., Davis, S., Woods, H. B., Anokye, N., Tappenden, P., & Kaltenthaler, E. (2015). A systematic review and economic evaluation of exercise referral schemes in primary care: A short report. Health Technology Assessment, 19(60), 1–110. issn:1366-5278Google Scholar
  8. Carstensen, C. E., Isaacowitz, D. M., & Charles, S. T. (1999). Taking time seriously: A theory of socioemotional selectivity. American Psychologist, 54(3), 165–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chodzko-Zajko, W., Schwingel, A., & Park, C. H. (2009). Successful aging: The role of physical activity. American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine, 3(1), 20–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Clemson, L., Fiatarone Singh, M. A., Bundy, A., Cumming, R. G., Manollaras, K., O’Loughlin, P., et al. (2012). Integration of balance and strength training into daily life activity to reduce rate of falls in older people (the LiFE study): Randomised parallel trial. British Medical Journal, 345, e4547.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. De Luca, C. R., & Leventer, R. J. (2008). Developmental trajectories of executive functions across the lifespan. In P. Anderson, V. Anderson, & R. Jacobs (Eds.), Executive functions and the frontal lobes: A lifespan perspective (pp. 3–21). Washington, DC: Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar
  12. Department for Culture. (2011). Adult participation in sport: Analysis of the taking part survey. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/137986/tp-adult-participation-sport-analysis.pdf. Accessed 10 July 2015.
  13. Devereux-Fitzgerald, A., Powell, R., Dewhurst, A., & French, D. P. (2016). The acceptability of physical activity interventions to older adults: A systematic review and meta-synthesis. Social Science & Medicine, 158, 14–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Devereux-Fitzgerald, A., Powell, R., & French, D. P. (2017). Conflating time and energy: Views from older adults in lower socioeconomic status areas on physical activity. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity. https://doi.org/10.1123/japa.2017-0283
  15. Devereux-Fitzgerald, A., Powell, R., & French, D. P. (in preparation). Older adults’ acceptability of being physically active: Views from older people and providers of physical activity in low socioeconomic areas.Google Scholar
  16. Fox, K. R., Hillsdon, M., Sharp, D., Cooper, A. R., Coulson, J. C., Davis, M., et al. (2011). Neighbourhood deprivation and physical activity in UK older adults. Health & Place, 17, 633–640.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Franco, M. R., Tong, A., Howard, K., Sherrington, C., Ferreira, P. H., Pinto, R. Z., & Ferreira, M. L. (2015). Older people’s perspectives on participation in physical activity: A systematic review and thematic synthesis of qualitative literature. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 49, 1268. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2014-094015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. French, D. P., Olander, E. K., Chisolm, A., & McSharry, J. (2014). Which behaviour change techniques are most effective at increasing older adults’ self-efficacy and physical activity behaviour? A systematic review. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 48(2), 225–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gardner, B., Lally, P., & Wardle, J. (2012). Making health habitual: The psychology of ‘habit-formation’ and general practice. British Journal of General Practice, 62(605), 664–666.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gollwitzer, P. M., & Sheeran, P. (2006). Implementation intentions and goal achievement: A meta-analysis of effects and processes. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 38, 69–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hallal, P. C., Andersen, L. B., Bull, F., Guthold, R., Haskell, W., & Ekelund, U. (2012). Global physical activity levels: Surveillance progress, pitfalls, and prospects. The Lancet, 380, 247–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hofmann, W., Schmeichel, B. J., & Baddeley, A. D. (2012). Executive functions and self-regulation. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 16(3), 174–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hupin, D., Roche, F., Gremeaux, V., Chatard, J. C., Oriol, M., Gaspoz, J. M., Barthélémy, J. C., & Edouard, P. (2015). Even a low-dose of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity reduces mortality by 22% in adults aged ≥ 60 years: A systematic review and meta-analysis. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 49(19), 1262–1267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kassavou, A., Turner, A., Hamborg, T., & French, D. P. (2014). Predicting maintenance of attendance at walking groups: Testing constructs from three leading maintenance theories. Health Psychology, 33, 752–756.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kassavou, A., Turner, A., & French, D. P. (2015). The role of walkers’ needs and expectations in supporting maintenance of attendance at walking groups: A longitudinal multi-perspective study of walkers and walk group leaders. PLoS One, 10(3), e0118754.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Koeneman, M. A., Verheijden, M. W., Chinapaw, M. J. M., & Hopman-Rock, M. (2011). Determinants of physical activity and exercise in healthy older adults: A systematic review. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 8, 142–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Löckenhoff, C. E., & Carstensen, L. L. (2004). Socioemotional selectivity theory, aging and health: The increasingly delicate balance between regulating emotions and making tough choices. Journal of Personality, 72(6), 1395–1424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. McGowan, L., Devereux-Fitzgerald, A., Powell, R., & French, D. P. (2017). How acceptable do older adults find the concept of being physically active? A systematic review and meta-synthesis. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1080/1750984X.2016.1272705.
  29. Michie, S., Richardson, M., Johnston, M., Abraham, C., Francis, J., Hardeman, W., Eccles, M. P., Cane, J., & Wood, C. E. (2013). The behavior change technique taxonomy (v1) of 93 hierarchically clustered techniques: Building an international consensus for the reporting of behavior change interventions. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 46(1), 81–95. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12160-013-9486-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. MRC Health Services and Public Health Research Board. (2008). Developing and evaluating complex interventions: New guidance. Retrieved July 9, 2016, from http://www.mrc.ac.uk/Utilities/Documentrecord/index.htm?d=MRC004871
  31. O’Brien, N., McDonald, S., Araújo-Soares, V., Lara, J., Errington, L., Godfrey, A., Meyer, T. D., Rochester, L., Mathers, J. C., White, M., & Sniehotta, F. F. (2015). The features of interventions associated with long-term effectiveness of physical activity interventions in adults aged 55 to 70 years: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Health Psychology Review, 9(4), 417–433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Pinquart, M., & Sorensen, S. (2001). Influences on loneliness in older adults: A meta-analysis. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 23(4), 245–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Pritchard, E., Barker, A., Day, L., Clemson, L., Brown, T., & Haines, T. (2015). Factors impacting the household and recreation participation of older adults living in the community. Disability and Rehabilitation, 37(1), 56–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Rothman, A. J. (2000). Toward a theory-based analysis of behavioral maintenance. Health Psychology, 19(Supplement 1), 64–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Scholes, S., & Mindell, J. (2013). Physical activity in adults. In R. Craig & J. Mindell (Eds.), Health survey for England 2012 (Vol. 1, Ch 2, pp. 1–49). London: Health and Social Care Information Centre.Google Scholar
  36. Sekhon, M., Cartwright, M., & Francis, J. J. (2017). Acceptability of healthcare interventions: An overview of reviews and development of a theoretical framework. BMC Health Services Research, 17, 88. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-017-2031-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Sport England. (2015). This girl can. Retrieved September 1, 2016, from http://www.sportengland.org/our-work/national-work/this-girl-can/
  38. Uchino, B. (2006). Social support and health: A review of physiological processes potentially underlying links to disease outcomes. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 29(4), 377–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. US Department of Health and Human Services. (2008). Physical activity guidelines for Americans. Retrieved August 8, 2016, from http://www.health.gov/paguidelines/guidelines/default.aspx
  40. Van Stralen, M. M., De Vries, H., Mudde, A. N., Bolman, C., & Lechner, L. (2009). Determinants of physical activity among older adults: A literature review. Health Psychology Review, 3(2), 147–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Weiss, D. R., Wolfson, C., Yaffe, M. J., Shrier, I., & Puts, M. T. E. (2012). Physician counseling of older adults about physical activity: The importance of context. American Journal of Health Promotion, 27(2), 71–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Williams, S., & French, D. P. (2011). What are the most effective intervention techniques for changing physical activity self-efficacy and physical activity behaviour – And are they the same? Health Education Research, 26(2), 308–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. World Health Organization. (2010). Global recommendations on physical activity for health. Geneva: WHO Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Angela Devereux-Fitzgerald
    • 1
  • Laura McGowan
    • 1
  • Rachael Powell
    • 1
  • David P. French
    • 1
  1. 1.Manchester Centre for Health Psychology, School of Health SciencesUniversity of ManchesterManchesterUK

Personalised recommendations