Treatments for Autism Spectrum Disorders

  • Michelle S. Lemay
  • Robert D. Rieske
  • Leland T. Farmer
Part of the Autism and Child Psychopathology Series book series (ACPS)


Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in social communication abilities, restricted and repetitive behaviors and interests, and sensory abnormalities. Before selecting an appropriate intervention for individuals with ASD, there are many considerations that need to be taken into account including the level of intellectual functioning, the severity of ASD symptoms, and the presence of any comorbid disorders, both medical and psychological. This chapter discusses the history of ASD and the importance of early intervention in working with population. Additionally, many of the popular and prominent interventions available for individuals with ASD are reviewed in regard to their empirical support, ranging from empirically validated interventions to those with less empirical support. Overall, the treatment of individuals with ASD is a complicated task. However, through the use of empirically validated interventions combined with careful treatment planning, improving the lives of those affected by ASD can be a highly rewarding endeavor.


Autism spectrum disorder Diagnosis Treatment Evidence-based treatment Behavioral intervention 


  1. Ackerman, L. (2015). Special Diets for ASD. Talk About Curing Autism (TACA). Retrieved from:
  2. Akins, R. S., Angkustsiri, K., & Hansen, R. L. (2010). Complementary and alternative medicine in autism: An evidence-based approach to negotiating safe and efficacious interventions with families. Neurotherapeutics, 7(3), 307–319.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. All, A. C., Loving, G. L., & Crane, L. L. (1999). Animals, horseback riding, and implications for rehabilitation therapy. Journal of Rehabilitation, 65(3), 49.Google Scholar
  4. American Psychiatric Association. (1980). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (3rd ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  5. American Psychiatric Association. DSM-5 Task Force, & American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-5 (5th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. American Psychiatric Association. Work Group to Revise DSM-III, & American Psychiatric Association. (1987). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-III-R (3rd ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  7. Andari, E., Duhamel, J., Zalla, T., Herbrecht, E., Leboyer, M., Sirigu, A., & Ungerleider, L. G. (2010). Promoting social behavior with oxytocin in high-functioning autism spectrum disorders. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 107(9), 4389–4394. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Andari, E., Richard, N., Leboyer, M., & Sirigu, A. (2016). Adaptive coding of the value of social cues with oxytocin, an fMRI study in autism spectrum disorder. Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior, 76, 79–88. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Anderson, D. M., Hansen, B., & Rees, D. I. (2015). Medical marijuana laws and teen marijuana use. American Law and Economics Review, 17(2), 495–528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Baker-Ericzén, M. J., Stahmer, A. C., & Burns, A. (2007). Child demographics associated with outcomes in a community-based pivotal response training program. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 9, 52–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bashir, S., & Al-Ayadhi, L. Y. (2013). Effect of camel milk on thymus and activation-regulated chemokine in autistic children: Double-blind study. Pediatric Research, 75(4), 559–563.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bent, S., Bertoglio, K., Ashwood, P., Nemeth, E., & Hendren, R. (2012). Brief report: Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) in children with autism spectrum disorder: A clinical trial. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 42(6), 1127–1132. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bishop-Fitzpatrick, L., Minshew, N. J., & Eack, S. M. (2013). A systematic review of psychosocial interventions for adults with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 43, 687–694.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Bleuler, E. (1913). Autistic thinking. American Journal of Insanity, 69, 873–886.Google Scholar
  15. Bozkus-Genc, G., & Yucesoy-Ozkan, S. (2016). Meta-analysis of Pivotal Response Training for children with autism spectrum disorder. Education and Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities, 51, 13–26.Google Scholar
  16. Brensing, K., & Linke, K. (2003). Behavior of dolphins towards adults and children during swim-with-dolphin programs and towards children with disabilities during therapy sessions. Anthrozoös, 16(4), 315–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Brooks, J. (2012). Interview with U.S. Attorney Haag on pot operations: ‘If it’s close to children, that’s a line we’re going to draw.’ KQED News. Retrieved from:
  18. Brown, J. A. (2011). Toxicity from the use of miracle mineral solution (sodium chlorite). Clinical Toxicology, 49(3), 205.Google Scholar
  19. Bryson, S. E., Koegel, L. K., Koegel, R. L., Openden, D., Smith, I. M., & Nefdt, N. (2007). Large scale dissemination and community implementation of pivotal response treatment: Program description of preliminary data. Research & Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 32, 142–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cadogan, S., & McCrimmon, A. W. (2015). Pivotal response treatment for children with autism spectrum disorder: A systematic review of research quality. Developmental Neurorehabilitation, 18, 137–144.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Canoy, J. P., & Boholano, H. B. (2015). Early start DENVER model: A meta-analysis. Journal of Education and Learning, 9, 314–327.Google Scholar
  22. Carr, J. E., & LeBlanc, L. A. (2007). Autism spectrum disorders in early childhood: An overview for practicing physicians. Primary Care; Clinics in Office Practice, 34(2), 343–359.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Cohen, D. J., Paul, R., & Volkmar, F. R. (1986). Issues in the classification of pervasive and other developmental disorders: Toward DSM-IV. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 25, 213–220.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Cohen, H., Amerine-Dickens, M., & Smith, T. (2006). Early intensive behavioral treatment: Replication of the UCLA model in a community setting. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 27(2), S145–S155.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Cohen, P. J. (2009). Medical marijuana: The conflict between scientific evidence and political ideology. Part one of two. Journal of Pain & Palliative Care Pharmacotherapy, 23(1), 4–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Damiano, C. R., Mazefsky, C. A., White, S. W., & Dichter, G. S. (2014). Future directions for research in autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 43(5), 828–843. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Dawson, G., Jones, E. J., Merkle, K., Venema, K., Lowy, R., Faja, S., & Webb, S. J. (2012). Early behavioral intervention is associated with normalized brain activity in young children with autism. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 51(11), 1150–1159. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. De Bruin, E. I., de Nijs, P. F. A., Verheij, F., Hartman, C. A., & Ferdinand, R. F. (2006). Multiple complex developmental disorder delineated from PDD-NOS. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37, 1181–1191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Deisinger, J. A. (2011). History of autism spectrum disorders. In A. F. Rotatori, F. Obiakor, & J. Bakken (Eds.)., 2011 History of special education. Bradford: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.Google Scholar
  30. Dolske, M. C., Spollen, J., McKay, S., Lancashire, E., & Tolbert, L. (1993). A preliminary trial of ascorbic acid as supplemental therapy for autism. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, 17(5), 765–774.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Eaves, L. C., & Ho, H. H. (2008). Young adult outcome of autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38, 739. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Eldevik, S., Hastings, R. P., Hughes, J. C., Jahr, E., Eikeseth, S., & Cross, S. (2009). Meta-analysis of early intensive behavioral intervention for children with autism. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 38(3), 439–450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Eldevik, S., Hastings, R. P., Hughes, J. C., Jahr, E., Eikeseth, S., & Cross, S. (2010). Using participant data to extend the evidence base for intensive behavioral intervention for children with autism. American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 115(5), 381–405.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Estes, A., Munson, J., Rogers, S. J., Greenson, J., Winter, J., & Dawson, G. (2015). Long-term outcomes of early intervention in 6-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 54(7), 580–587.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Fine, A. H. (2006). Handbook on animal-assisted therapy: Theoretical foundations and guidelines for practice (2nd ed.). Academic Press.Google Scholar
  36. Foxx, R. M., & Mulick, J. A. (Eds.). (2016). Controversial therapies for autism and intellectual disabilities: Fad, fashion, and science in professional practice (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  37. Gilman, V. (2005). The marijuana debate: Healing herb or dangerous drug? National Geographic News. Retrieved from:
  38. Goin-Kochel, R. P., Mackintosh, V. H., & Myers, B. J. (2006). How many doctors does it take to make an autism spectrum diagnosis? Autism, 10, 439–451.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Goldstein, S., & Ozonoff, S. (2009). Historical perspective and overview. In S. Goldstein, 1952, J. A. Naglieri, & S. Ozonoff (2009). Assessment of autism spectrum disorders. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  40. Gotlib, A., & Rupert, R. (2008). Chiropractic manipulation in pediatric health conditions–an updated systematic review. Chiropractic & Osteopathy, 16(1), 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Greenspan, S., & Wieder, S. (1999). A functional developmental approach to autism spectrum disorders. Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 24(3), 147–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hadland, S. E., Knight, J. R., & Harris, S. K. (2015). Medical marijuana: Review of the science and implications for developmental behavioral pediatric practice. Journal of developmental and behavioral pediatrics: JDBP, 36(2), 115.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. Hanson, E., Kalish, L. A., Bunce, E., Curtis, C., McDaniel, S., Ware, J., & Petry, J. (2007). Use of complementary and alternative medicine among children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37(4), 628–636.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Heasley, S. (2010). Chemical castration drug peedled as autism treatment. Disability Scoop. Retrieved from
  45. Howard, J. S., Sparkman, C. R., Cohen, H. G., Green, G., & Stanislaw, H. (2005). A comparison of intensive behavior analytic and eclectic treatments for young children with autism. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 26(4), 359–383.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Hu, Y., Li, J., Liu, P., Chen, X., Guo, D. H., Li, Q. S., & Rahman, K. (2011). Protection of SH-SY5Y neuronal cells from glutamate-induced apoptosis by 3, 6′-disinapoyl sucrose, a bioactive compound isolated from radix polygala. Journal of Biomedicine & Biotechnology, 2012, 1–5.
  47. Humphries, T. L. (2003). Effectiveness of dolphin-assisted therapy as a behavioral intervention for young children with disabilities. Bridges, 1(6), 1–9.Google Scholar
  48. Ichim, T. E., Solano, F., Glenn, E., Morales, F., Smith, L., Zabrecky, G., & Riordan, N. H. (2007). Stem cell therapy for autism. Journal of Translational Medicine, 5(1), 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Jacobson, J. W., Mulick, J. A., & Schwartz, A. A. (1995). A history of facilitated communication: Science, pseudoscience, and antiscience science working group on facilitated communication. American Psychologist, 50, 750–765.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Jepson, B., Granpeesheh, D., Tarbox, J., Olive, M., Stott, C., Braud, S., & ... Allen, M. (2011). Controlled evaluation of the effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on the behavior of 16 children with autism Spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 41(5), 575–588. doi:
  51. Kaiser, A. P., & Hester, P. P. (1996). How everyday environments support children’s communication. In L. K. Koegel & R. L. Koegel (Eds.), Positive behavioral support: Including people with difficult behavior in the community (pp. 145–162). Baltimore: Brookes.Google Scholar
  52. Kalyva, E. (2011). Autism: Educational and therapeutic approaches. Portland, OR: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  53. Kanner, L. (1943). Autistic disturbances of affective contact. The Nervous Child, 2, 217–250.Google Scholar
  54. Kanner, L. (1944). Early infantile autism. The Journal of Pediatrics, 25, 211–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kanner, L. (1954). To what extent is early infantile autism determined by constitutional inadequacies? Research Publications - Association for Research in Nervous and Mental Disease, 33, 378–385.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Kanner, L., & Eisenberg, L. (1957). Early infantile autism, 1943–1955. Psychiatric Research Reports, 7, 55–65.Google Scholar
  57. Khorshid, K. A., Sweat, R. W., Zemba, D. A., & Zemba, B. N. (2006). Clinical efficacy of upper cervical versus full spine chiropractic care on children with autism: A randomized clinical trial. Annals of Vertebral Subluxation Research, 9, 1–7.Google Scholar
  58. Koegel, R. L., Koegel, L. K., & Camarata, S. M. (2010). Definitions of empirically supported treatment. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40(4), 516–517. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. Koegel, R. L., O’Dell, M. C., & Koegel, L. K. (1987). A natural language paradigm for teaching non-verbal autistic children. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 17, 187–199.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Kozlowski, B. W. (1992). Megavitamin treatment of mental retardation in children: A review of effects on behavior and cognition. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 2(4), 307–320.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Kratz, S. V., Kerr, J., & Porter, L. (2016). The use of CranioSacral therapy for autism spectrum disorders: Benefits from the viewpoints of parents, clients, and therapists. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies.
  62. Krebs, G., Murray, K., & Jassi, A. (2016). Modified cognitive behavior therapy for severe, treatment-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder in an adolescent with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 72, 1162–1173.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Lang, R., Regester, A., Lauderdale, S., Ashbaugh, K., & Haring, A. (2010). Treatment of anxiety in autism spectrum disorders using cognitive behaviour therapy: A systematic review. Developmental Neurorehabilitation, 13(1), 53–63. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Levisohn, P. M. (2007). The autism-epilepsy connection. Epilepsia, 48(s9), 33–35.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Lin, I., Kashino, M., Ohta, H., Yamada, T., Tani, M., Watanabe, H., … Kato, N. (2014). The effect of intranasal oxytocin versus placebo treatment on the autonomic responses to human sounds in autism: A single-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover design study. Molecular Autism, 5(1), 20–20. doi:
  66. Lovaas, O. I. (1981). Teaching developmentally disabled children: The ME book. Baltimore: Univ. Park Press.Google Scholar
  67. Lovaas, O. I. (1987). Behavioral treatment and normal educational and intellectual functioning in young autistic children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 3–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Lucido, F. (2004). Implementation of the compassionate use act in a family medicine practice: Seven years clinical experience. Retrieved from
  69. Marino, L., & Lilienfeld, S. O. (2007). Dolphin-assisted therapy: More flawed data and more flawed conclusions. Anthrozoös, 20(3), 239–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Martín-Sánchez, E., Furukawa, T. A., Taylor, J., & Martin, J. L. R. (2009). Systematic review and meta analysis of cannabis treatment for chronic pain. Pain Medicine, 10(8), 1353–1368.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Matson, J. L., Matson, M. L., & Rivet, T. T. (2007). Social-skills treatments for children with autism spectrum disorders: An overview. Behavior Modification, 31(5), 682–707. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. McDaniel, B. C., Osmann, E. L., & Wood, W. (2015). A systematic mapping review of equine-assisted activities and therapies for children with autism: Implications for occupational therapy. Paper presented at the Annual Research Conference of Society for the Study of Occupation: USA.Google Scholar
  73. McGee, G. C., Geldman, R. S., & Chernin, L. (1991). A comparison of emotional facial display by children with autism and typical preschoolers. Journal of Early Intervention, 15, 237–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. McNamara, D. (2003). Early diagnosis optimizes autism outcomes: Merits of the Miami model. Family Practice News, 33(22), 41.Google Scholar
  75. Mhatre, D., Bapat, D., & Udani, V. (2016). Long-term outcomes in children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders in India. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 46(3), 760–772. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Mitka, M. (2008). Chelation therapy trials halted. JAMA, 300(19), 2236–2236. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Morrison, M. L. (2007). Health benefits of animal-assisted interventions. Complementary Health Practice Review, 12(1), 51–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Mulloy, A., Lang, R., O’Reilly, M., Sigafoos, J., Lancioni, G., & Rispoli, M. (2010). Gluten-free and casein-free diets in the treatment of autism spectrum disorders: A systematic review. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 4, 328–339. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Muotri, A. R. (2016). The human model: Changing focus on autism research. Biological Psychiatry, 79, 642–649.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Nathanson, D. E. (1998). Long-term effectiveness of dolphin-assisted therapy for children with severe disabilities. Anthrozoös, 11(1), 22–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Offit, P. A. (2010). Autism’s false prophets: Bad science, risky medicine, and the search for a cure (Paperback ed.). Chichester, UK: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  82. Parish-Plass, N. (2013). Animal-assisted psychotherapy: Theory, issues, and practice. West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University Press.Google Scholar
  83. Pennesi, C. M., & Klein, L. C. (2012). Effectiveness of the gluten-free, casein-free diet for children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder: Based on parental report. Nutritional Neuroscience, 15(2), 85–91. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Prelock, P. A., & McCauley, R. J. (Eds.). (2012). Treatment of autism Spectrum disorders: Evidence-based intervention strategies for communication and social interactions. Baltimore: Brookes Publishing.Google Scholar
  85. Rimland, B., Findling, R. L., Maxwell, K., & Witnitzer, M. (1998). High dose vitamin B6 and magnesium in treating autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 28(6), 581–582.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Rogers, S. J., & Dawson, G. (2010). Early start Denver model for young children with ASD: Promoting language, learning, and engagement. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  87. Rutter, M. (1972). Childhood schizophrenia reconsidered. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 2(3), 315–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Rutter, M., Lebovici, S., Eisenberg, L., Sneznevskij, A. V., Sadoun, R., Brooke, E., & Lin, T. Y. (1969). A tri-axial classification of mental disorders in childhood. An international study. Journal Of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 10, 41–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Sallows, G. O., & Graupner, T. D. (2005). Intensive behavioral treatment for children with autism: Four-year outcome and predictors. American Journal of Mental Retardation, 110, 417–438.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Sawyer, A., Lake, J., Lunsky, Y., Liu, A., & Desarkar, P. (2014). Psychopharmacological treatment of challenging behaviours in adults with autism and intellectual disabilities: A systematic review. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 8(2014), 803–813.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Scattone, D., & Mong, M. (2013). Cognitive behavior therapy in the treatment of anxiety for adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorders. Psychology in the Schools, 50, 923–935. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Schreibman, L. (1997). Theoretical perspectives on behavioral intervention for individuals with autism. In D. J. Cohen & F. R. Volkmar (Eds.), Handbook of autism and pervasive developmental disorders (2nd ed., pp. 920–933). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  93. Shabo, Y., Barzel, R., Margoulis, M., & Yagil, R. (2005). Camel milk for food allergies in children. The Israel Medicine Association Journal, 7(12), 796.Google Scholar
  94. Shabo, Y., & Yagil, R. (2005). Etiology of autism and camel milk as therapy. International Journal on Disability and Human Development, 4(2), 67–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Shane, H. C., & Kearns, K. (1994). An examination of the role of the facilitator in facilitated communication. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 3, 48–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Sheinkopf, S. J., & Siegel, B. (1998). Home-based behavioral treatment of young children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 28(1), 15–23.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Sinha, Y., Silove, N., & Williams, K. (2006). Chelation therapy and autism. BMJ [British Medical Journal], 333(7571), 756.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Siniscalco, D., Sapone, A., Cirillo, A., Giordano, C., Maione, S., & Antonucci, N. (2012). Autism spectrum disorders: Is mesenchymal stem cell personalized therapy the future? Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology, 2012, 1–6.
  99. Stephenson, J., Carter, M., & Kemp, C. (2012). Quality of the information on educational and therapy interventions provided on the web sites of national autism associations. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 6(1), 11–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Sutera, S., Pandey, J., Esser, E. L., Rosenthal, M. A., Wilson, L. B., Barton, M.,… Fein, D. (2007). Predictors of optimal outcome in toddlers diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37(1), 98–107. doi:
  101. Todd, J. (2012). The moral obligation to be empirical: Comments on Boynton’s “Facilitated Communication-what harm it can do: Confessions of a former facilitator.”. Evidence-Based Communication Assessment and Intervention, 6, 36–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Towbin, K. E., Dykens, E. M., Pearson, G. S., & Cohen, D. J. (1993). Conceptualizing “borderline syndrome of childhood” and “childhood schizophrenia” as a developmental disorder. Journal of the American Academcy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 32, 775–782.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Upledger, J. (2017). Discover craniosacral therapy. Upledger Institute International. Retrieved from
  104. Valicenti-McDermott, M., Hottinger, K., Seijo, R., & Shulman, L. (2012). Age at diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders. The Journal of Pediatrics, 161(3), 554–556. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Vanes, D. (2013). Craniosacral therapy. In D. Vanes (Ed.), Taber’s Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary (22nd ed., p. 584). Philadelphia: F. A. Davis Company.Google Scholar
  106. Vismara, L. A., & Rogers, S. J. (2010). Behavioral treatments in autism spectrum disorder: What do we know? Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 6(1), 447–468. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Vivanti, G., & Dissanayake, C. (2016). Outcome for children receiving the early start Denver model before and after 48 months. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 46(7), 2441–2449. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Vivanti, G., Paynter, J., Duncan, E., Fothergill, H., Dissanayake, C., & Rogers, S. (2014). Effectiveness and feasibility of the early start Denver model implemented in a group-based community childcare setting. Journal Of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 44(12), 3140–3153. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Vohra, S., Johnston, B. C., Cramer, K., & Humphreys, K. (2007). Adverse events associated with pediatric spinal manipulation: A systematic review. Pediatrics, 119(1), e275–e283.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Wieder, S. (2013). Developmental, individual difference, relationship-based (DIR) model. In Encyclopedia of autism spectrum disorders (pp. 895–905). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  111. Williams, S. R., Dawling, S., & Seger, D. L. (2009). Severe hemolysis in pediatric case after ingestion of miracle mineral solution (TM). Clinical Toxicology(47, 7, 737–737). New York: Informa Healthcare.Google Scholar
  112. Willingham, E. (2013). The 5 scariest autism ‘treatments.’ Forbes (Pharma & Healthcare). Retrieved from
  113. Wong, C., Odom, S. L., Hume, K. A., Cox, A. W., Fettig, A., Kucharczyk, S., & Shultz, T. R. (2015). Evidence-based practices for children, youth, and young adults with autism spectrum disorder: A comprehensive review. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 45, 1951–1966.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Wong, H. H., & Smith, R. G. (2006). Patterns of complementary and alternative medical therapy use in children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36(7), 901–909.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Xiong, T., Chen, H., Luo, R., & Mu, D. (2016). Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 11.

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michelle S. Lemay
    • 1
  • Robert D. Rieske
    • 1
  • Leland T. Farmer
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyIdaho State UniversityPocatelloUSA

Personalised recommendations