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Tics and Tourette Syndrome

  • Denis G. Sukhodolsky
  • Theresa R. Gladstone
  • Shivani A. Kaushal
  • Justyna B. Piasecka
  • James F. Leckman
Chapter
Part of the Autism and Child Psychopathology Series book series (ACPS)

Abstract

Tourette syndrome (TS) is a childhood-onset, neurodevelopmental disorder that is diagnosed based on the presence of chronic motor and vocal tics. This chapter reviews the core clinical characteristic of tics and associated features including premonitory urges and contextual factors of tic expression. Co-occurring conditions including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, anxiety disorders, and disruptive behavior disorders are common in children with TS. The chapter provides guidelines for diagnostic assessment of TS and co-occurring psychopathology as well as a review of psychometric measures of tic severity. Current research on neurobiological underpinnings of tics and pathophysiology of TS is also reviewed and linked to an overview of behavioral and psychopharmacological treatment approaches. Particular attention is dedicated to a behavioral intervention for tics known as habit reversal training (HRT) or comprehensive behavioral intervention for tics (CBIT). Recent research on clinical efficacy and moderators of response to CBIT is discussed and clinical recommendations for implementing CBIT for common tics are provided. Lastly, behavioral interventions for irritability and noncompliance that are common in children with TS are also reviewed and related to recommendations for comprehensive clinical care for individuals with TS.

Keywords

Tourette syndrome Tic disorder Assessment Behavioral intervention Pharmacological intervention 

Abbreviations

A-TAC

Autism—Tics, AD/HD, and other Comorbidities inventory

ADHD

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

BOLD

Blood oxygenation level-dependent

CBIT

Comprehensive behavioral intervention for tics

CBT

Cognitive-behavioral therapy

CSTC

Corticostriatal-thalamo-cortical

CTD

Chronic tic disorder

D2

Dopamine 2

EMG

Electromyography

HRT

Habit reversal training

MOVES

Motor tic, Obsessions and compulsions, Vocal tic Evaluation Survey

OCD

Obsessive-compulsive disorder

PMd

Dorsal premotor cortex

PMT

Parent management training

PPI

Prepulse inhibition

PUTS

Premonitory Urge for Tics Scale

SMA

Supplementary motor area

STSS

Shapiro TS Severity Scale

TODS

Tourette’s Disorder Scale

TS

Tourette syndrome

TS-CGI

Tourette Syndrome Clinical Global Impression

VSP

Visuospatial priming

YGTSS

Yale Global Tic Severity Scale

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Denis G. Sukhodolsky
    • 1
  • Theresa R. Gladstone
    • 1
  • Shivani A. Kaushal
    • 1
  • Justyna B. Piasecka
    • 1
  • James F. Leckman
    • 1
  1. 1.Yale School of Medicine, Child Study CenterNew HavenUSA

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