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Gender and Racial/Ethnic Differences in CVD Risk: Behavioral and Psychosocial Risk and Resilience

Abstract

Behavioral and psychosocial factors are well-established determinants of cardiovascular disease burden. These factors exert direct effects as well as interact with traditional risk factors to negatively, and positively, influence CVD outcomes. The aim of this chapter is to provide an overview of key behavioral and psychosocial CVD risk factors with a focus on sex, racial/ethnic, and socioeconomic variations in prevalence and impact. This review includes a discussion of specific behaviors, clustered risk such as the American Heart Association’s (AHA) ideal cardiovascular health metrics, psychosocial stress and clinical syndromes. We conclude with a review of emerging psychosocial resilience factors and recommendations for care.

Keywords

  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Health behaviors
  • Psychosocial
  • Health disparities
  • Resilience
  • Sex
  • Gender
  • Race/ethnicity
  • Socioeconomic status

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Fig. 10.1
Fig. 10.2

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Ruiz, J.M., Doyle, C.Y., Flores, M.A., Price, S.N. (2018). Gender and Racial/Ethnic Differences in CVD Risk: Behavioral and Psychosocial Risk and Resilience. In: Mehta, J., McSweeney, J. (eds) Gender Differences in the Pathogenesis and Management of Heart Disease. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-71135-5_10

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