Gender and Racial/Ethnic Differences in CVD Risk: Behavioral and Psychosocial Risk and Resilience

  • John M. RuizEmail author
  • Caroline Y. Doyle
  • Melissa A. Flores
  • Sarah N. Price


Behavioral and psychosocial factors are well-established determinants of cardiovascular disease burden. These factors exert direct effects as well as interact with traditional risk factors to negatively, and positively, influence CVD outcomes. The aim of this chapter is to provide an overview of key behavioral and psychosocial CVD risk factors with a focus on sex, racial/ethnic, and socioeconomic variations in prevalence and impact. This review includes a discussion of specific behaviors, clustered risk such as the American Heart Association’s (AHA) ideal cardiovascular health metrics, psychosocial stress and clinical syndromes. We conclude with a review of emerging psychosocial resilience factors and recommendations for care.


Cardiovascular disease Health behaviors Psychosocial Health disparities Resilience Sex Gender Race/ethnicity Socioeconomic status 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • John M. Ruiz
    • 1
    Email author
  • Caroline Y. Doyle
    • 1
  • Melissa A. Flores
    • 2
  • Sarah N. Price
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of ArizonaTucsonUSA
  2. 2.Department of Family StudiesUniversity of ArizonaTucsonUSA

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