Advertisement

Islam in US Politics

  • Erdoan A. Shipoli
Chapter
  • 459 Downloads

Abstract

This chapter explores the place of Islam in US politics, from history to the current times. It analyzes the encounter of Americans with Muslims and the relation of Islam, Muslims, and America during and after the Cold War; how American foreign policy is conducted, with reference to Islam; and finally, it introduces the campaign of the securitization of Islam in US politics and Islamophobia, prior to going into discourse analysis of US presidents.

References

  1. ABC News – Washington Post Poll. 2006. Broad Skepticism of Islam Marks Post-9/11 Sentiment. March 5. http://abcnews.go.com/images/International/Islam_views.pdf. Accessed 26 Aug 2015.
  2. AbuKhalil, As’ad. 2002. Bin Laden, Islam, and America’s New “War on Terrorism”. New York: Seven Stories.Google Scholar
  3. al-Hibri, Azizah Y. 1999. Islamic and American Constitutional Law: Borrowing Possibilities or a History of Borrowing? University of Pennsylvania Journal of Constitutional Law 1 (3): 492–527.Google Scholar
  4. Ali, Anas Al-Shaikh. 2011. Islamophobic Discourse Masquerading as Art and Literature: Combating Myth Through Progressive Education. In The Challenge of Pluralism in the 21st Century: Islamophobia, ed. John L. Esposito and Ibrahim Kalin, 143–172. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Allen, Chris. 2010. Islamophobia. Burlington: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  6. Allison, Robert J. 2000. The Crescent Obscured: The United States and the Muslim World, 1776–1815. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  7. Attar, Samar. 2007. The Vital Roots of the European Enlightenment: Ibn Tufayl’s Influence on Modern Western Thought. New York: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  8. Austin, Allan D. 1997. African Muslims in Antebellum America: Transatlantic Stories and Spiritual Struggles. New York/London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  9. Battistini, Robert. 2010. Glimpses of the Other Before Orientalism: The Muslim World in Early American Periodicals, 1785–1800. Early American Studies 8 (2): 446–474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bowen, John R. 2012. Blaming Islam. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  11. Brzezinski, Zbigniew. 1997. The Grand Chessboard: American Primacy and its Geostrategic Imperatives. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  12. Bunzl, Matti. 2007. Anti-Semitism and Islamophobia: Hatred Old and New in Europe. Chicago: Prickly Paradigm Press.Google Scholar
  13. Burman, Thomas E. 2007. Reading the Qur’an in Latin Christendom, 1140–1560. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cameron, Fraser. 2002. US Foreign Policy After the Cold War: Global Hegemon or Reluctant Sheriff? London/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  15. Cesari, Jocelyne. 2011. Islamophobia in the West: A Comparison Between Europe and the United States. In The Challenge of Pluralism in the 21st Century: Islamophobia, ed. John L. Esposito and Ibrahim Kalin, 21–43. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Clinton, Bill. 1991. A New Covenant for American Security. Speech Delivered at the Georgetown University School of Foreign Service. Washington, DC, December 12.Google Scholar
  17. Curtis, Edward E. 2009. Muslims in America: A Short History. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  18. ———., ed. 2010. Encyclopedia of Muslim-American History. New York: Sheridan Books.Google Scholar
  19. Dietz, Rob. 2006. CNN’s Beck to First-Ever Muslim Congressman: “[W]hat I feel like saying is, ‘Sir, prove to me that you are not working with our enemies’”. Media Matters for America. November 15. https://www.mediamatters.org/video/2006/11/15/cnns-beck-to-first-ever-muslim-congressman-what/137311. Accessed 17 Oct 2017.
  20. Diouf, Sylvanie. 1998. Servants of Allah: Muslims Enslaved in the Americas. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Echebarria-Echabe, A., and E. Fernandez-Guede. 2007. A New Measure of Anti-Arab Prejudice: Reliability and Validity Evidence. Journal of Applied Social Psychology 37 (37): 1077–1091.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Edgall, P., and D. Hartmann. 2006. Atheists as Other: Moral Boundaries and Cultural Membership in American Society. American Sociological Review 71: 211–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Eisenhower, Dwight D. 1957. Eisenhower Doctrine. January 5. http://millercenter.org/president/eisenhower/speeches/speech-3360. Accessed 17 Oct 2015.
  24. Elmarsafy, Ziad. 2009. The Enlightenment Qur’an: The Politics of Translation and the Construction of Islam. Oxford: One World Press.Google Scholar
  25. Esposito, John L. 2011a. Introduction. In The Challenge of Pluralism in the 21st Century: Islamophobia, ed. John L. Esposito and Ibrahim Kalin, xxi–xxxv. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  26. ———. 2011b. What Everyone Needs to Know About Islam. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Esposito, John. 2012. Foreword. In The Islamophobia Industry: How the Right Manufactures Fear of Muslims, ed. Nathan Lean, x–xiii. London: Pluto Press.Google Scholar
  28. Esposito, John L., and Ibrahim Kalin, eds. 2011. The Challenge of Pluralism in the 21st Century: Islamophobia. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  29. Feffer, John. 2012. Crusade 2.0: The West’s Resurgent War on Islam. San Francisco: City Lights Publishers.Google Scholar
  30. Figueroa, Tiffani B. 2012. “All Muslims Are Like That”: How Islamophobia Is Diminishing Americans’ Right to Receive Information. Hofstra Law Review 41 (2): 467–502.Google Scholar
  31. Fouskas, Vassilis. 2003. Zones of Conflict: US Foreign Policy in the Balkans and the Greater Middle East. Sterling: Pluto Press.Google Scholar
  32. Fuller, Graham H. 1995. A Sense of Siege: The Geopolitics of Islam and the West. Boulder: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  33. Garcia, Humberto. 2012. Islam and the English Enlightenment, 1670–1840. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  34. Ghanea Bassiri, Kambiz. 2010. A History of Islam in America: From the New World to the New World Order. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gibbon, J. 2005. Unveiling Islamophobia; American Attitudes Toward Islam. Working paper.Google Scholar
  36. Ginzburg, Carlo. 1992. The Cheese and the Worms: The Cosmos of a Sixteenth-Century Miller. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  37. Gottschalk, Peter, and Gabriel Greenberg. 2008. Islamophobia: Making Muslims the Enemy. New York: Rowman and Littlefield.Google Scholar
  38. ———. 2011. From Muhammad to Obama: Caricatures, Cartoons, and Stereotypes of Muslims. In The Challenge of Pluralism in the 21st Century: Islamophobia, ed. John L. Esposito and Ibrahim Kalin, 191–209. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  39. Gunny, Ahmad. 1996. Images of Islam in Eighteenth-Century Writings. London: Grey Seal.Google Scholar
  40. Hirsh, Michael. 2002. Bush and the World. Foreign Affairs, September/October: 18–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Holland, Taylor. 2010. Copy of Quran Only Book Saved from Union’s 1865 burning of UA. The Tuscaloosa News, September 10.Google Scholar
  42. Kalin, Ibrahim. 2011. Islamophobia and the Limits of Multiculturalism. In The Challenge of Pluralism in the 21st Century: Islamophobia, ed. John L. Esposito and Ibrahim Kalin, 3–20. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Kalkan, K.O., G.C. Layman, and E.M. Uslaner. 2009. “Bands of Others?” Attitudes Towards Muslims in Contemporary American Society. The Journal of Politics 71: 847–862.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kidd, T. 2003. Is It Worse to Follow Mahomet than the Devil? Early American Uses of Islam. Church History 72 (4): 766–790.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kidd, Thomas S. 2009. American Christians and Islam: Evangelical Culture and Muslims from the Colonial Period to the Age of Terrorism. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  46. Kissinger, Henry. 1994. Diplomacy. New York: Simon and Schuster.Google Scholar
  47. Kopansky, Ataullah Bogdan. 2000. Orientalism Revisited: Bernard Lewis’ School of Political Islamography. Intellectual Discourse 8 (2): 133–157.Google Scholar
  48. Kumar, Deepa. 2012. Islamophobia and the Politics of Empire. Chicago: Haymarket Books.Google Scholar
  49. Kundnani, Arun. 2014. The Muslims are Coming! Islamophobia, Extremism, and the Domestic War on Terror. New York: Verso.Google Scholar
  50. Larsson, Goran. 2005. The Impact of Global Conflicts on Local Contexts: Muslims in Sweden After 9/11 – The Rise of Islamophobia, or New Possibilities. Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations 16: 29–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Lean, Nathan. 2012. The Islamophobia Industry: How the Right Manufactures Fear of Muslims. London: Pluto Press.Google Scholar
  52. Lewis, Bernard. 1993. Islam and Liberal Democracy. Atlantic Monthly, February.Google Scholar
  53. Lopez, Fernando Bravo. 2011. Towards a Definition of Islamophobia: Approximations of the Early Twentieth Century. Ethnic and Racial Studies 34 (4): 556–573.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Majid, Anouar. 2000. Unveiling Traditions. Durham: Duke University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Marr, Timothy. 2006. The Cultural Roots of American Islamicism. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  56. Matar, Nabil. 1999. Turks, Moors and Englishmen in the Age of Discovery. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  57. Mather, Cotton. 1994. In The Christian Philosopher, ed. Winton U. Solberg. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.Google Scholar
  58. Mazrui, Ali A. 2004. Muslims Between the Jewish Example and the Black Experience: American Policy Implications. In Muslims’ Place in the American Public Square: Hope, Fears, and Aspirations, ed. Zahid H. Bukhari, Sulayman S. Nyang, Mumtaz Ahmad, and John L. Esposito, 117–144. Walnut Creek: Altamira Press.Google Scholar
  59. Model, S., and L. Lin. 2002. The Cost of Not Being Christian: Hindus, Sikhs and Muslims in Britain and Canada. International Migration Review 36: 1061–1092.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Modood, T. 1997. Introduction. In The Politics of Multiculturalism in the New Europe: Racism, Identity and Community, ed. T. Modood and P.J. Werbner, 1–25. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  61. Mohideen, Haja, and Shamimah Mohideen. 2008. The Language of Islamophobia in Internet Articles. Intellectual Discourse 16 (1): 73–87.Google Scholar
  62. Nimer, Mohamed. 2011. Islamophobia and Anti-Americanism: Measurements, Dynamics, and Consequences. In The Challenge of Pluralism in the 21st Century: Islamophobia, ed. John L. Esposito and Ibrahim Kalin, 77–92. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  63. Nussbaum, Martha C. 2012. The New Religious Intolerance: Overcoming the Politics of Fear in an Anxious Age. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Parmar, Inderjeet, et al. 2009. Introduction. In New Directions in US Foreign Policy, ed. Inderjeet Parmar, Linda B. Miller, and Mark Ledwidge, 1–3. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  65. Pew Research Center for the People and the Press. 2010. Public Remains Conflicted Over Islam. http://www.pewforum.org/2010/08/24/public-remains-conflicted-over-islam/. Accessed 23 Aug 2015.
  66. Pollitt, Katha. 2004. Moore 1, Media 0. The Nation, July 19.Google Scholar
  67. Pratto, F., J. Sidanius, L.M. Stallworth, and B.F. Malle. 1994. Social Dominance Orientation: A Personality Variable Predicting Social and Political Attitudes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 67: 741–763.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Purkiss, R. 2003. Islamophobia and European Identity. In The Fight Against Anti-Semitism and Islamophobia: Bringing Communities Together, ed. Anna Diamantopoulou, 61–64. Brussels: European Monitoring Center on Racism and Xenophobia.Google Scholar
  69. Quandt, William B. 1986. Camp David: Peacemaking and Politics. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution.Google Scholar
  70. Quinn, Frederick. 2008. The Sum of All Heresies: The Image of Islam in Western Thought. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Reynolds, David S. 1981. Faith in Fiction: The Emergence of Religious Literature in American. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  72. Runnymede Trust. 2004. Islamophobia: Issues, Challenges, and Action. London: The Runnymede Trust.Google Scholar
  73. Said, Edward. 1978. Orientalism. New York: Pantheon.Google Scholar
  74. ———. 1985. Orientalism Reconsidered. Race & Class 27 (2): 1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Salaita, Steven. 2006. Anti-Arab Racism in the United States: When It Comes from and What It Means for Politics Today. London: Pluto Press.Google Scholar
  76. Sayyid, S. 2014. Measuring Islamophobia. Islamophobia Studies Journal 2 (1): 10–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Schevitz, Tanya. 2002. FBI Sees Leap in Anti-Muslim Bias Hate Crimes. San Francisco Chronicle, November 26. http://www.sfgate.com/news/article/FBI-sees-leap-in-anti-Muslim-hate-crimes-9-11-2750152.php. Accessed 26 Aug 2015.
  78. Schmitt, Carl. 1996. The Concept of the Political. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  79. Schueller, Malini Johar. 1998. U.S. Orientalisms: Race, Nation, and Gender in Literature, 1790–1890. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Schwartz, Stephen. 2010. Islamophobia: America’s New Fear Industry. Phi Kappa (Fall): 19–21.Google Scholar
  81. Scouten, Arthur H., ed. 1961. The London Stage, 16000–1800: A Calendar of Plays, Part 3: 1729–1747. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.Google Scholar
  82. Scribner, R.W. 1994. For the Sake of Simple Folk: Popular Propaganda for the German Reformation. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  83. Seitz-Wald, Alex. 2011. Fox News Watchers Consistently More Likely to have Negative Views of Muslims. Think Progress, February 16. http://thinkprogress.org/media/2011/02/16/144856/fox-news-watchers-consistently-more-likely-to-have-negative-views-of-muslims/. Accessed 17 Aug 2017.
  84. Shaheen, Jack. 1997. Arab and Muslim Stereotyping. Washington, DC: Center for Muslim-Christian Understanding, Georgetown University.Google Scholar
  85. ———. 2001. Reel Bad Arabs: How Hollywood Vilifies People. New York: Olive Branch.Google Scholar
  86. Shaheen, Jack G. 2008. Guilty: Hollywood’s Verdict on Arabs After 9/11. New York: Olive Branch Press.Google Scholar
  87. Shryock, Andrew. 2010. Islam as an Object of Fear and Affection. In Islamophobia Islamophilia: Beyond the Politics of Enemy and Friend, ed. Andrew Shryock. Indiana: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  88. Siddiqui, Habib. 2011. Shariah-Phobia in America. IslamiCity, June 22. http://www.islamicity.org/4349/shariah-phobia-in-america/. Accessed 27 August 2017.
  89. Slomp, Jan. 1995. Calvin and the Turks. In Christina-Muslim Encounters, ed. Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad and Wadi Z. Haddad, 50–65. Gainesville: University Press of Florida.Google Scholar
  90. Spellberg, Denise A. 2013. Thomas Jefferson’s Qur’an: Islam and the Founders. New York: Knopf.Google Scholar
  91. Stephan, W.G., and C.W. Stephan. 2000. An Integrated Threat Theory of Prejudice. In Reducing Prejudice and Discrimination, ed. S. Oskamp, 23–45. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  92. Stephan, W.G., O. Ybarra, C.M. Martinez, J. Schwarzald, and M. TurKaspa. 1998. Prejudice Toward Immigrants to Spain and Israel: An Integrated Threat Theory Approach. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 29: 559–576.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Stephan, W.G., O. Ybarra, and G. Bachman. 1999. Prejudice Toward Immigrants. Journal of Applied Social Psychology 29: 2221–2237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Stephan, W.G., R. Diaz-Loving, and A. Duran. 2000. Integrated Threat Theory and Intercultural Attitudes: Mexico and the United States. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 31: 240–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Stephan, W.G., K.A. Boniecki, O. Ybarra, A. Bettencourt, K.S. Erwin, L.A. Jackson, et al. 2002. The Role of Threats in the Racial Attitudes of Blacks and Whites. Personality and Social Psychology 28: 1242–1254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Sussman, Peter. 2004. Fahrenheit 9/11: Firing up the Choir. Alternet. www.alternet.org/story/19139. Accessed 26 Aug 2015.
  97. The Bridge Initiative. 2016. When Islamophobia Turns Violent: The 2016 U.S. Presidential Elections. Georgetown University: Alwaleed bin Talal Center for Muslim Christian Understanding. May 2. http://bridge.georgetown.edu/when-islamophobia-turns-violent-the-2016-u-s-presidential-elections/. Accessed 17 Aug 2017.
  98. Thompson, Mary V. 2010. Mount Vernon. In Encyclopedia of Muslim-American History, ed. Edward E. Curtis. New York: Facts on File.Google Scholar
  99. Vakil, Abdoolkarim. 2010. Is the Islam in Islamophobia the Same as the Islam in Anti-Islam; Or, When Is It Islamophobia Time? In In Thinking Through Islamophobia, ed. S. Sayyid and Abdoolkarim Vakil, 23–44. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  100. Von Clausewitz, Carl. 1976. On War. Louise Wilmot. London: Wordsworth (edt.). 1997.Google Scholar
  101. Wuthnow, R., and C. Hackett. 2003. The Social Integration of Practitioners of Non-Western Religions in the United States. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 42: 651–667.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Erdoan A. Shipoli
    • 1
  1. 1.Visiting Scholar at the Center for Muslim Christian UnderstandingGeorgetown UniversityWashington, DCUSA

Personalised recommendations