Concepts: Organization of Nursing Work and the Psychosocial Experience of Nurses



In this chapter, the intuitive link between balanced, healthy, and supportive psychosocial work environments and a variety of vitally important patient, nurse, and organizational outcomes is discussed with reference to a number of clearly defined and well-researched concepts. Among the essential concepts that ground the rest of the book is the notion of a bundle of factors that provide a context for nurses’ work and are known collectively as the practice environment. Landmark studies that focused specifically on nurses’ experiences of their work environments in exemplary hospitals examined so-called Magnet hospitals, leading to a framework that describes the practice environment and its linkage with professional well-being, occupational stress, and quality of practice and productivity. Many ideas and models have obvious connections to the notion of practice environment such as Job Demand–Control–Support model, worklife dimensions and burnout, concepts related to burnout such as compassion fatigue, and work engagement as a mirror image concept of burnout, as well as notions of empowerment and authentic leadership. These concepts have been chosen for discussion here based on critical masses of evidence pointing to their usefulness in healthcare management and specifically in the management of nursing services. Together all of these concepts and supporting research and scholarship speak to a common point: intentional leadership approaches, grounded in a comprehensive understanding of nurses’ psychosocial experiences of their work, are essential to nurses’ abilities to respond to complex patients’ needs in rapidly changing healthcare contexts and socioeconomic conditions.


Nurse shortage Practice environment Magnet hospitals Magnet recogniton program Mortality and comorbidity Burnout Work engagement Compasion fatigue and compassion satisfaction Empowerment Authentic leadership 


  1. Abdelhadi N, Drach-Zahavy A. Promoting patient care: work engagement as a mediator between ward service climate and patient-centred care. J Adv Nurs. 2012;68(6):1276–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adriaenssens J, Hamelink A, Van Bogaert P. Predictors of occupational stress and well-being in first-line nurse managers: a cross-sectional survey study. Int J Nurs Stud. 2017;73:85–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aiken LH. Superior outcomes for magnet hospitals: the evidence base. In: McClure ML, Hinshaw AS, editors. Magnet hospitals revisited: attraction and retention of professional nurses. Kansas City: American Nurses Association; 2002. p. 61–81.Google Scholar
  4. Aiken LH, Patrician PA. Measuring organizational traits of hospitals: the Revised Nursing Work Index. Nurs Res. 2000;49(3):146–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Aiken LH, Sochalski J, Lake ET. Studying outcomes of organizational change in health services. Med Care. 1997;35(11 Suppl):NS6–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Aiken LH, Havens DS, Sloane DM. The magnet nursing services recognition program. Am J Nurs. 2000;100(3):26–35; quiz 35.Google Scholar
  7. Aiken LH, Clarke SP, Sloane DM, Sochalski JA, Busse R, Clarke H, Giovannetti P, Hunt J, Rafferty AM, Shamian J. Nurses’ reports on hospital care in five countries. Health Aff. 2001;20(3):43–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Aiken LH, Clarke SP, Sloane DM, Lake ET, Cheney T. Effects of hospital care environment on patient mortality and nurse outcomes. J Nurs Adm. 2008;38(5):223–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Aiken LH, Sermeus W, Van den Heede K, Sloane DM, Busse R, McKee M, Bruyneel L, Rafferty AM, Griffiths P, Moreno-Casbas MT, Tishelman C, Scott A, Brzostek T, Kinnunen J, Schwendimann R, Heinen M, Zikos D, Sjetne IS, Smith HL, Kutney-Lee A. Patient safety, satisfaction, and quality of hospital care: cross sectional surveys of nurses and patients in 12 countries in Europe and the United States. BMJ. 2012;344:e1717.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Aiken LH, Sloane DM, Bruyneel L, Van den Heede K, Griffiths P, Busse R, Diomidous M, Kinnunen J, Kózka M, Lesaffre E, McHugh MD, Moreno-Casbas MT, Rafferty AM, Schwendimann R, Scott PA, Tishelman C, van Achterberg T, Sermeus W, RN4CAST Consortium. Nurse staffing and education and hospital mortality in nine European countries: a retrospective observational study. Lancet. 2014;383(9931):1824–30.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. American Nurse Association. Scope of standards for nurse administrators. ANA task force on standards for organized nursing services, 1994–1996. Kansas City: American Nurses Publishing; 1996.Google Scholar
  12. Armon G, Shmuel S, Shirom A. The relationship of the job demands-control-support model with vigor across time: testing for reciprocality. Appl Psychol Health Well Being. 2012;4(3):276–98.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Avolio BJ, Gardner WL. Authentic leadership development: getting to the root of positive forms of leadership. Leadersh Q. 2005;16(3):315–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Avolio BJ, Walumbwa FO, Weber TJ. Leadership: current theories, research, and future directions. Annu Rev Psychol. 2009;60:421–49.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Awa WL, Plaumann M, Walter U. Burnout prevention: a review of intervention programs. Patient Educ Couns. 2010;78(2):184–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Baggs JG, Ryan SA, Phelps CE, Richeson JF, Johnson JE. The association between interdisciplinary collaboration and patient outcomes in a medical intensive care unit. Heart Lung. 1992;21(1):18–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Bakker AB, Demerouti E. The job demands-resources model: state of the art. J Manage Psychol. 2007;22(3):309–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bakker AB, Albrecht SL, Leiter MP. Key questions regarding work engagement. Eur J Work Organ Psy. 2011a;20(1):4–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bakker AB, Albrecht SL, Leiter MP. Work engagement: further reflections on the state of play. Eur J Work Organ Psy. 2011b;20(1):74–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bamford M, Wong C, Laschinger HK. The influence of authentic leadership and areas of worklife on work engagement of registered nurses. J Nurs Manage. 2013;21(3):529–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Borritz M, Kristensen TS. Copenhagen burnout inventory: normative data from a representative Danish population on personal burnout and results from the PUMA study. In: Personal burnout, work burnout, and client burnout. Copenhagen: National Institute of Occupational Health; 2001.Google Scholar
  22. Chassin MR, Park RE, Lohr KN, Keesey J, Brook RH. Differences among hospitals in medicare patient mortality. Health Serv Res. 1989;24(1):1–31.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. Choi J, Bakken S, Larson E, Du Y, Stone PW. Perceived nursing work environment of critical care nurses. Nurs Res. 2004;53(6):370–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Clarke SP, Aiken LH. Failure to rescue. Am J Nurs. 2003;103(1):42–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Clarke SP, Aiken LH. An international hospital outcomes research agenda focused on nursing: lessons from a decade of collaboration. J Clin Nurs. 2008;17(24):3317–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Coetzee SK, Klopper HC. Compassion fatigue within nursing practice: a concept analysis. Nurs Health Sci. 2010;12(2):235–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Conger JA, Kanungo RN. The empowerment process: integrating theory and practice. Acad Manag Rev. 1988;13(3):471–82.Google Scholar
  28. Dahinten VS, Macphee M, Hejazi S, Laschinger H, Kazanjian M, McCutcheon A, Skelton-Green J, O’Brien-Pallas L. Testing the effects of an empowerment-based leadership development programme: part 2 - staff outcomes. J Nurs Manag. 2014;22(1):16–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. de Brouwer BJ, Kaljouw MJ, Kramer M, Schmalenberg C, van Achterberg T. Measuring the nursing work environment: translation and psychometric evaluation of the essentials of magnetism. Int Nurs Rev. 2014;61(1):99–108.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Edmonstone J, Western J. Leadership development in health care: what do we know. J Manag Med. 2002;16(1):34–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Engström M, Westerberg Jacobson J, Mårtensson G. Staff assessment of structural empowerment and ability to work according to evidence-based practice in mental health care. J Nurs Manag. 2015;23(6):765–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Eo Y, Kim YH, Lee NY. Path analysis of empowerment and work effectiveness among staff nurses. Asian Nurs Res. 2014;8(1):42–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Erickson JI, Duffy ME, Gibbons MP, Fitzmaurice J, Ditomassi M, Jones D. Development and psychometric evaluation of the professional practice environment (PPE) scale. J Nurs Scholarsh. 2004;36(3):279–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Estabrooks CA, Tourangeau AE, Humphrey CK, Hesketh KL, Giovannetti P, Thomson D, Wong J, Acorn S, Clarke H, Shamian J. Measuring the hospital practice environment: a Canadian context. Res Nurs Health. 2002;25(4):256–68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Estabrooks CA, Midodzi WK, Cummings GG, Ricker KL, Giovannetti P. The impact of hospital nursing characteristics on 30-day mortality. Nurs Res. 2005;54(2):74–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Estabrooks CA, Midodzi WK, Cummings GG, Ricker KL, Giovannetti P. The impact of hospital nursing characteristics on 30-day mortality. J Nurs Adm. 2011;41(7–8 Suppl):S58–68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Estryn-Béhar M, Van der Heijden BI, Ogińska H, Camerino D, Le Nézet O, Conway PM, Fry C, Hasselhorn HM, Next SG. The impact of social work environment, teamwork characteristics, burnout, and personal factors upon intent to leave among European nurses. Med Care. 2007;45(10):939–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Figley CR. Compassion fatigue: coping with secondary traumatic stress disorder in those who treat the traumatized. Palo Alto: Psychology Press; 1995.Google Scholar
  39. Freeney YM, Tiernan J. Exploration of the facilitators of and barriers to work engagement in nursing. Int J Nurs Stud. 2009;46(12):1557–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Friese CR, Lake ET, Aiken LH, Silber JH, Sochalski J. Hospital nurse practice environments and outcomes for surgical oncology patients. Health Serv Res. 2008;43(4):1145–63.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Garrosa E, Moreno-Jiménez B, Rodríguez-Muñoz A, Rodríguez-Carvajal R. Role stress and personal resources in nursing: a cross-sectional study of burnout and engagement. Int J Nurs Stud. 2011;48(4):479–89.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Grindel CG, Peterson K, Kinneman M, Turner TL. The practice environment project. A process for outcome evaluation. J Nurs Adm. 1996;26(5):43–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Gunnarsdóttir S, Clarke SP, Rafferty AM, Nutbeam D. Front-line management, staffing and nurse-doctor relationships as predictors of nurse and patient outcomes. a survey of Icelandic hospital nurses. Int J Nurs Stud. 2009;46(7):920–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Havens DS. Comparing nursing infrastructure and outcomes: ANCC magnet and nonmagnet CNEs report. Nurs Econ. 2001;19(6):258.Google Scholar
  45. Hoffart N, Woods CQ. Elements of a nursing professional practice model. J Prof Nurs. 1996;12(6):354–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hui C. Effects of leader empowerment behaviors and followers’ personal control, voice, and self-efficacy on in-role and extra-role performance: an extension and empirical test of Conger and Kanungo’s empowerment process model. Indianapolis: Indiana University; 1994.Google Scholar
  47. Ibrahim RZAR, Ohtsuka K. Review of the job demand-control and job demand-control-support models: elusive moderating predictor effects and cultural implications. Southeast Asia Psychol J. 2014;1:10–21.Google Scholar
  48. Jenaro C, Flores N, Orgaz MB, Cruz M. Vigour and dedication in nursing professionals: towards a better understanding of work engagement. J Adv Nurs. 2011;67(4):865–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kanter RM. Men and women of the corporation. 2nd ed. Basis Books: New York; 1993.Google Scholar
  50. Karasek R, Theorell T. Healthy work: stress, productivity and the reconstruction of working life. New York: Basic Books; 1992.Google Scholar
  51. Kelly L, Runge J, Spencer C. Predictors of compassion fatigue and compassion satisfaction in acute care nurses. J Nurs Scholarsh. 2015;47(6):522–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Khamisa N, Peltzer K, Oldenburg B. Burnout in relation to specific contributing factors and health outcomes among nurses: a systematic review. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2013;10(6):2214–40.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Knaus WA, Draper EA, Wagner DP, Zimmerman JE. An evaluation of outcome from intensive care in major medical centers. Ann Intern Med. 1986;104(3):410–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Knol J, Van Linge R. Innovative behavior: the effect of structural and psychological empowerment on nurses. J Adv Nurs. 2009;65(2):359–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kohn LT, Corrigan JM, Donaldson MS. To err is human: building a safer health system. Washington DC: National Academy Press; 2000.Google Scholar
  56. Korman AK. Industrial and organizational psychology. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall; 1971.Google Scholar
  57. Kowalski C, Ommen O, Driller E, Ernstmann N, Wirtz MA, Köhler T, Pfaff H. Burnout in nurses - the relationship between social capital in hospitals and emotional exhaustion. J Clin Nurs. 2010;19(11-12):1654–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Kramer M, Hafner LP. Shared values: impact on staff nurse job satisfaction and perceived productivity. Nurs Res. 1989;38(3):172–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Kramer M, Schmalenberg C. Staff identify essentials of magnetism. In: Margaret LM, Ada SH, editors. Magnet hospitals revisited: attraction and retention of professional nurses. Kansas City: American Nurses Association; 2002. p. 25–59.Google Scholar
  60. Kramer M, Schmalenberg C. Development and evaluation of essentials of magnetism tool. J Nurs Adm. 2004;34(7–8):365–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Lake E. Development of practice environment scale of the nursing work index. Res Nurs Health. 2002;25:176–88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Lake ET, Friese CR. Variations in nursing practice environments: relation to staffing and hospital characteristics. Nurs Res. 2006;55(1):1–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Laschinger HK, Finegan J. Empowering nurses for work engagement and health in hospital settings. J Nurs Adm. 2005;35(10):439–49.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Laschinger HK, Leiter P. The impact of nursing work environments on patient safety outcomes: the mediating role of burnout engagement. J Nurs Adm. 2006;36(5):259–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Laschinger HK, Finegan J, Shamian J. The impact of workplace empowerment, organizational trust on staff nurses’ work satisfaction and organizational commitment. Health Care Manag Rev. 2001a;26(3):7–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Laschinger HK, Finegan J, Shamian J, Wilk P. Impact of structural and psychological empowerment on job strain in nursing work settings: expanding Kanter’s model. J Nurs Adm. 2001b;31(5):260–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Laschinger HK, Almost J, Tuer-Hodes D. Workplace empowerment and magnet hospital characteristics: making the link. J Nurs Adm. 2003;33(7-8):410–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Laschinger HK, Finegan JE, Shamian J, Wilk P. A longitudinal analysis of the impact of workplace empowerment on work satisfaction. J Organ Behav. 2004;25(4):527–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Laschinger HK, Leiter M, Day A, Gilin D. Workplace empowerment, incivility, and burnout: impact on staff nurse recruitment and retention outcomes. J Nurs Manag. 2009;17(3):302–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Laschinger HK, Wong CA, Grau AL. The influence of authentic leadership on newly graduated nurses’ experiences of workplace bullying, burnout and retention outcomes: a cross-sectional study. Int J Nurs Stud. 2012;49(10):1266–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Laschinger HK, Wong CA, Cummings GG, Grau AL. Resonant leadership and workplace empowerment: the value of positive organizational cultures in reducing workplace incivility. Nurs Econ. 2014;32(1):5–15, 44; quiz 16.Google Scholar
  72. Laschinger HK, Borgogni L, Consiglio C, Read E. The effects of authentic leadership, six areas of worklife, and occupational coping self-efficacy on new graduate nurses’ burnout and mental health: a cross-sectional study. Int J Nurs Stud. 2015;52(6):1080–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Le Blanc PM, Hox JJ, Schaufeli WB, Taris TW, Peeters MC. Take care! The evaluation of a team-based burnout intervention program for oncology care providers. J Appl Psychol. 2007;92(1):213–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Leiter MP, Bakker AB. Work engagement: introduction. In: Bakker AB, Leiter MP, editors. Work engagement: a handbook of essential theory and research. New York: Psychology Press; 2010. p. 1–9.Google Scholar
  75. Leiter MP, Laschinger HK. Relationships of work and practice environment to professional burnout: testing a causal model. Nurs Res. 2006;55(2):137–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Leiter MP, Maslach C. Six areas of worklife: a model of the organizational context of burnout. J Health Hum Serv Adm. 1999;21(4):472–89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Leiter MP, Maslach C. Nurse turnover: the mediating role of burnout. J Nurs Manag. 2009;17(3):331–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Leiter MP, Maslach C. Areas of worklife survey manual. 5th ed. San Francisco: Mind Garden Inc.; 2011.Google Scholar
  79. Lethbridge K, Andrusyszyn MA, Iwasiw C, Laschinger HK, Fernando R. Structural and psychological empowerment and reflective thinking: is there a link. J Nurs Educ. 2011;50(11):636–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Li YF, Lake ET, Sales AE, Sharp ND, Greiner GT, Lowy E, Liu CF, Mitchell PH, Sochalski JA. Measuring nurses’ practice environments with the revised nursing work index: evidence from registered nurses in the Veterans Health Administration. Res Nurs Health. 2007;30(1):31–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Li J, Galatsch M, Siegrist J, Müller BH, Hasselhorn HM, European NEXTSG. Reward frustration at work and intention to leave the nursing profession–prospective results from the European longitudinal NEXT study. Int J Nurs Stud. 2011;48(5):628–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Li B, Bruyneel L, Sermeus W, Van den Heede K, Matawie K, Aiken L, Lesaffre E. Group-level impact of work environment dimensions on burnout experiences among nurses: a multivariate multilevel probit model. Int J Nurs Stud. 2013;50(2):281–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Locke EA. What is job satisfaction. In: Edward EL, editor. Motivation in work organizations. Monterey: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company; 1973.Google Scholar
  84. MacPhee M, Bouthillette F. Developing leadership in nurse managers: the British Columbia nursing leadership institute. Nurs Leadersh. 2008;21(3):64–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. MacPhee M, Skelton-Green J, Bouthillette F, Suryaprakash N. An empowerment framework for nursing leadership development: supporting evidence. J Adv Nurs. 2012;68(1):159–69.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. MacPhee M, Dahinten VS, Hejazi S, Laschinger H, Kazanjian A, McCutcheon A, Skelton-Green J, O’Brien-Pallas L. Testing the effects of an empowerment-based leadership development programme: part 1 - leader outcomes. J Nurs Manag. 2014;22(1):4–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Maslach C, Leiter MP. Early predictors of job burnout and engagement. J Appl Psychol. 2008;93(3):498–512.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Maslach C, Jackson SE, Schwab RL. Maslach burnout inventory manual. 3rd ed. Menlo Park: Mountain View; 1996.Google Scholar
  89. Maslach C, Schaufeli WB, Leiter MP. Job burnout. Annu Rev Psychol. 2001;52:397–422.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Mauno S, Kinnunen U, Ruokolainen M. Job demands and resources as antecedents of work engagement: a longitudinal study. J Vocat Behav. 2007;70(1):149–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. McClure ML, Hinshaw AS. Magnet hospitals revisited: attraction and retention of professional nurses. Kansas City: American Nurses Association; 2002.Google Scholar
  92. McClure ML, Poulin MA, Sovie MD, Wandelt MA. Magnet hospitals: attraction and retention of professional nurses (the orginal study). In: McClure ML, Hinshaw AS, editors. Magnet hospitals revisited: attraction and retention of professional nurses. Kansas City: American Nurses Association; 2002. p. 1–24.Google Scholar
  93. McCusker J, Dendukuri N, Cardinal L, Laplante J, Bambonye L. Nursing work environment and quality of care: differences between units at the same hospital. Int J Health Care Qual Assur Inc Leadersh Health Serv. 2004;17(6):313–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. van Mol MM, Kompanje EJ, Benoit DD, Bakker J, Nijkamp MD. The prevalence of compassion fatigue and burnout among healthcare professionals in intensive care units: a systematic review. PLoS One. 2015;10(8):e0136955.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Needleman J, Buerhaus P, Mattke S, Stewart M, Zelevinsky K. Nurse-staffing levels and the quality of care in hospitals. N Engl J Med. 2002;346(22):1715–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Nelson L, Burns FL. High performance programming: a framework for transforming organizations. In: Transforming work: a collection of organizational transformation readings. Alexandria: Miles River Press; 1984.Google Scholar
  97. Nowrouzi B, Lightfoot N, Larivière M, Carter L, Rukholm E, Schinke R, Belanger-Gardner D. Occupational stress management and burnout interventions in nursing and their implications for healthy work environments: a literature review. Workplace Health Saf. 2015;63(7):308–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Page A. Nursing: inseparable linked to patient safety. In: Committee OTWEFNAPS, Board OHCS, Institute OM, editors. Keeping patients safe: transforming the work environment of nurses. Washington, DC: National Academies Press; 2004.Google Scholar
  99. Salanova M, Schaufeli WB. A cross-national study of work engagement as a mediator between job resources and proactive behavior. Int J Human Resour Manage. 2008;19(1):116–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Schaufeli W, Bakker A. Utrecht work engagement scale: preliminary manual. Utrecht: Utrecht University; 2003.Google Scholar
  101. Schaufeli WB, Buunk BP. Burnout: an overview of 25 years of research and theorizing. In: Schabracq MJ, Winnubst JAM, Cooper CL, editors. The handbook of work and health psychology. Chichester: Wiley; 2003.Google Scholar
  102. Schaufeli WB, Enzmann D. The burnout companion to study and research. a critical analysis. London: Taylor & Francis; 1998.Google Scholar
  103. Schaufeli WB, Salonova M. Work engagement: on how to better catch a slippery concept. Eur J Work Organ Psy. 2011;20(1):39–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Schaufeli WB, Bakker AB, Salanova M. The measurement of work engagement with a short questionnaire: a cross-national study. Educ Psychol Meas. 2006;66(4):701–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Schaufeli WB, Bakker AB, Van Rhenen W. How changes in job demands and resources predict burnout, work engagement, and sickness absenteeism. J Organ Behav. 2009;30(7):893–917.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Schmalenberg C, Kramer M. Types of intensive care units with the healthiest, most productive work environments. Am J Crit Care. 2007;16(5):458–68; quiz 469.Google Scholar
  107. Schmalenberg C, Kramer M. Essentials of a productive nurse work environment. Nurs Res. 2008;57(1):2–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Schubert M, Glass TR, Clarke SP, Schaffert-Witvliet B, De Geest S. Validation of the basel extent of rationing of nursing care instrument. Nurs Res. 2007;56(6):416–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Sermeus W, Aiken LH, Van den Heede K, Rafferty AM, Griffiths P, Moreno-Casbas MT, Busse R, Lindqvist R, Scott AP, Bruyneel L, Brzostek T, Kinnunen J, Schubert M, Schoonhoven L, Zikos D, RN4CAST Consortium. Nurse forecasting in Europe (RN4CAST): rationale, design and methodology. BMC Nurs. 2011;10:6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Siegrist J, Starke D, Chandola T, Godin I, Marmot M, Niedhammer I, Peter R. The measurement of effort–reward imbalance at work: European comparisons. Soc Sci Med. 2004;58(8):1483–99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Silber JH, Rosenbaum PR, Ross RN. Comparing the contributions of groups of predictors: which outcomes vary with hospital rather than patient characteristics. J Am Stat Assoc. 1995;90(429):7–18.Google Scholar
  112. Silber JH, Kennedy SK, Even-Shoshan O, Chen W, Koziol LF, Showan AM, Longnecker DE. Anesthesiologist direction and patient outcomes. Anesthesiology. 2000;93(1):152–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Simon CE, Pryce JG, Roff LL, Klemmack D. Secondary traumatic stress and oncology social work: protecting compassion from fatigue and compromising the worker’s worldview. J Psychol Oncol. 2005;23(4):1–14.Google Scholar
  114. Simpson M. Engagement at work: a review of the literature. J Nurs Stud. 2009;46:1012–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Spreitzer GM. Psychological empowerment in the workplace: dimensions, measurement, and validation. Acad Manag J. 1995;38(5):1442–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Stamm BH. The concise ProQOL manual. Pocatello:; 2010.Google Scholar
  117. Tourangeau AE, Coghlan AL, Shamian J, Evans S. Registered nurse and registered practical nurse evaluations of their hospital practice environments and their responses to these environments. Nurs Leadersh. 2005;18(4):54–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Tourangeau AE, Doran DM, McGillis Hall L, O’Brien Pallas L, Pringle D, JV T, Cranley LA. Impact of hospital nursing care on 30-day mortality for acute medical patients. J Adv Nurs. 2007;57(1):32–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Triolo PK, Scherer EM, Floyd JM. Evaluation of the magnet recognition program. J Nurs Adm. 2006;36(1):42–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Upenieks VV. Assessing differences in job satisfaction of nurses in magnet and nonmagnet hospitals. J Nurs Adm. 2002;32(11):564–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Upenieks VV. The interrelationship of organizational characteristics of magnet hospitals, nursing leadership, and nursing job satisfaction. Health Care Manag. 2003a;22(2):83–98.Google Scholar
  122. Upenieks VV. What constitutes effective leadership? Perceptions of magnet and non-magnet nurse leaders. J Nurs Adm. 2003b;33(9):456–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Urden LD, Monarch K. The ANCC magnet recognition program converting research findings into action. In: McClure ML, Hinshaw AS, editors. Magnet hospitals revisited: attraction and retention of professional nurses. Kansas City: American Nurses Association; 2002. p. 103–15.Google Scholar
  124. Van Bogaert P. Authentic leadership influences work-life coping in new nurses. Evid Based Nurs. 2016;19(2):54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Van Bogaert P, Clarke S, Vermeyen K, Meulemans H, Van de Heyning P. Practice environments and their associations with nurse-reported outcomes in Belgian hospitals: development and preliminary validation of a Dutch adaptation of the Revised Nursing Work Index. Int J Nurs Stud. 2009a;46(1):54–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Van Bogaert P, Meulemans H, Clarke S, Vermeyen K, Van de Heyning P. Hospital nurse practice environment, burnout, job outcomes and quality of care: test of a structural equation model. J Adv Nurs. 2009b;65(10):2175–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Van Bogaert P, Clarke S, Willems R, Mondelaers M. Nurse practice environment, workload, burnout, job outcomes, and quality of care in psychiatric hospitals: a structural equation model approach. J Adv Nurs. 2013a;69(7):1515–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Van Bogaert P, Clarke S, Willems R, Mondelaers M. Staff engagement as a target for managing work environments in psychiatric hospitals: implications for workforce stability and quality of care. J Clin Nurs. 2013b;22(11-12):1717–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Van Bogaert P, Kowalski C, Weeks SM, Van Heusden D, Clarke SP. The relationship between nurse practice environment, nurse work characteristics, burnout and job outcome and quality of nursing care: a cross-sectional survey. Int J Nurs Stud. 2013c;50(12):1667–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Van Bogaert P, van Heusden D, Timmermans O, Franck E. Nurse work engagement impacts job outcome and nurse-assessed quality of care: model testing with nurse practice environment and nurse work characteristics as predictors. Front Psychol. 2014;5:1261.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  131. Van der Doef M, Maes S. The job demand-control (-support) model and physical health outcomes: a review of the strain and buffer hypotheses. Psychol Health. 1998;13(5):909–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Van der Doef M, Maes S. The Leiden quality of work questionnaire: its construction, factor structure, and psychometric qualities. Psychol Rep. 1999;85(3 Pt 1):954–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Wagner JL, Warren S, Cummings G, Smith DL, Olson JK. Resonant leadership, workplace empowerment, and “spirit at work”: impact on RN job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Can J Nurs Res. 2013;45(4):108–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Walston SL, Burns LR, Kimberly JR. Does reengineering really work? An examination of the context and outcomes of hospital reengineering initiatives. Health Serv Res. 2000;34(6):1363.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  135. Walumbwa FO, Avolio BJ, Gardner WL, Wernsing TS, Peterson SJ. Authentic leadership: development and validation of a theory-based measure. J Manag. 2008;34(1):89–126.Google Scholar
  136. Wang S, Liu Y. Impact of professional nursing practice environment and psychological empowerment on nurses’ work engagement: test of structural equation modelling. J Nurs Manag. 2015;23(3):287–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. White M, Wells JS, Butterworth T. The impact of a large-scale quality improvement programme on work engagement: preliminary results from a national cross-sectional-survey of the ‘Productive Ward’. Int J Nurs Stud. 2014;51(12):1634–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Wolf GA, Greenhouse PK. A road map for creating a magnet work environment. J Nurs Adm. 2006;36(10):458–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Wolf G, Triolo P, Ponte PR. Magnet recognition program: the next generation. J Nurs Adm. 2008;38(4):200–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Wong CA, Laschinger HK. Authentic leadership, performance, and job satisfaction: the mediating role of empowerment. J Adv Nurs. 2013;69(4):947–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Yang J, Liu Y, Huang C, Zhu L. Impact of empowerment on professional practice environments and organizational commitment among nurses: a structural equation approach. Int J Nurs Pract. 2013;19(S1):44–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Nursing and Midwifery Sciences, Centre for Research and Innovation in Care (CRIC), Faculty of Medicine and Health SciencesUniversity of AntwerpAntwerpBelgium
  2. 2.William F. Connell School of NursingBoston CollegeUSA

Personalised recommendations