Industrial Water Use and the Associated Pollution and Disposal Problems in the Philippines
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This chapter characterizes the state of Philippine water policy as it relates to the industrial sector and compares it with those of ASEAN countries. The water consumption profiles (source and quantity) of major industries are described, with a focus on those with large water footprints (e.g., oils and chemicals, food and beverages) to assess relative potential to cause water pollution. From water generation and pollution load profiles of the industrial sector, the wastewater characteristics of major industries are evaluated. A review of government regulations related to the prevention and control of water pollution, their state of implementation, and the degree of compliance/non-compliance by the industrial sector are presented. Using three environmental water pollution events as cases (nickel and chromium mining in Sta. Cruz, Zambales; gold mining in Padcal, Benguet Province, and the biophysical deterioration of the Marilao-Meycauayan-Obando river system due to factory effluents), the difficulties in the implementation of environmental laws, which lead to water pollution and great public health impacts, are explored.
KeywordsIndustrial water use Water pollution Philippine Clean Water Act of 2004 Water quality Effluents
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