Advertisement

Industrial Water Use and the Associated Pollution and Disposal Problems in the Philippines

  • Veronica P. MigoEmail author
  • Marlo D. Mendoza
  • Catalino G. Alfafara
  • Juan M. Pulhin
Chapter
  • 396 Downloads
Part of the Global Issues in Water Policy book series (GLOB, volume 8)

Abstract

This chapter characterizes the state of Philippine water policy as it relates to the industrial sector and compares it with those of ASEAN countries. The water consumption profiles (source and quantity) of major industries are described, with a focus on those with large water footprints (e.g., oils and chemicals, food and beverages) to assess relative potential to cause water pollution. From water generation and pollution load profiles of the industrial sector, the wastewater characteristics of major industries are evaluated. A review of government regulations related to the prevention and control of water pollution, their state of implementation, and the degree of compliance/non-compliance by the industrial sector are presented. Using three environmental water pollution events as cases (nickel and chromium mining in Sta. Cruz, Zambales; gold mining in Padcal, Benguet Province, and the biophysical deterioration of the Marilao-Meycauayan-Obando river system due to factory effluents), the difficulties in the implementation of environmental laws, which lead to water pollution and great public health impacts, are explored.

Keywords

Industrial water use Water pollution Philippine Clean Water Act of 2004 Water quality Effluents 

References

  1. ABS-CBN. (2015). Philex mining: Padcal mine life may be extended. http://news.abs-cbn.com/business/03/20/15/philex-mining-padcal-mine-life-may-be-extended. Accessed 5 Dec 2016.
  2. ADB (Asian Development Bank) and Blacksmith Institute. (2013). Reduction of mercury and heavy metal contamination resulting from artisanal gold refining in Meycauayan, Bulacan River System (report card). https://www.adb.org/results/water-pda-reducing-mercury-and-heavy-metals-contamination-meycauayan-river. Accessed 10 Jan 2017.
  3. Badilla, N. S. (2015). Four firms blamed for mud flows. The Manila Times. http://www.manilatimes.net/4-firms-blamed-for-mud-flows/225602/. Accessed 10 Jan 2017.
  4. Blacksmith Institute. (2007). “Dirty Thirty”—List of the world’s worst polluted places for 2007. Unpublished report. www.worstpolluted.org/reports/file/2007%20Report%20updated%202009.pdf. Accessed 5 Dec 2016.
  5. Bondoc, J. (2013). SC stops Zambales mines; Chinese ‘invaders’ socked. The Philippine Star. http://www.philstar.com/opinion/2013/07/24/1005781/sc-stops-zambales-mines-chinese-invaders-socked. Accessed 5 Dec 2016.
  6. Boquiren, A. (2013). Philex mine spill: Not due to Typhoon Saola (Gener), it is a test on responsible mining. https://file.ejatlas.org/docs/ATM_Art_Boquiren_On_the_Philex_Mine_Spill_of_August_2012__written_7_May_2013_.pdf. Accessed 5 Dec 2016.
  7. Campos, O. V. (2016). Closure of Zambales mines affects local economy. Manila Standard. http://www.thestandard.com.ph/business/202253/closure-of-zambales-mines-affects-local-economy-.html. Accessed 5 Dec 2016.
  8. Datu, R. (2016). Writ of Kalikasan filed vs mining firms, Zambales, DENR officials. http://www.rappler.com/nation/134153-writ-kalikasan-mining-firms-zambales-denr. Accessed 5 Dec 2016.
  9. DBP (Development Bank of the Philippines). (1999). Handbook of environmental standards. Manila: DBP.Google Scholar
  10. DENR (Department of Environment and Natural Resources). (1990a). Administrative order no. 34: Revised water usage and classification/water quality criteria amending section nos. 68 and 69, Chapter III of the 1978 NPCC rules and regulations. Manila: DENR.Google Scholar
  11. DENR (Department of Environment and Natural Resources). (1990b). Administrative order no. 35: Revised effluent regulations of 1990. Manila: DENR.Google Scholar
  12. DENR (Department of Environment and Natural Resources). (2016). Administrative order no. 2016-08. Water quality guidelines and general effluent standards of 2016. Manila: DENR.Google Scholar
  13. EMB-NCR (Environmental Management Bureau-National Capital Region). (2013). EMB NCR waste water generation data. Unpublished.Google Scholar
  14. EMB-Region III (Environmental Management Bureau-Region III). (2014). Water pollution for industries and commercial establishments. Unpublished.Google Scholar
  15. LLDA (Laguna Lake Development Authority). (2014). LLDA waste water generation data of industries as of 2014. Unpublished.Google Scholar
  16. Local Water Utilities Administration (LWUA). (2000). Manual on water rates and related practices. Retrieved from http://www.lwua.gov.ph/downloads_10/LWUA_water_rates_manual.pdf.
  17. Manila Water Company. (2015). Average consumption per day in cubic meters for industries in east zone of Metro Manila as of 2015. Unpublished.Google Scholar
  18. Matsumura, M., Nakao, N., Alfafara, C. G., & Migo, V. P. (2003). The current situation and problems of water treatment technologies in the Philippines [in Japanese]. Journal of Water and Waste, 45(10), 69–76.Google Scholar
  19. Maynilad. (2015). Maynilad tariff schedule. http://www.mayniladwater.com.ph/uploaded/Dec_16_TARIFF_table_for_2016_web.jpg. Accessed 10 Jan 2017.
  20. NPCC (National Pollution Control Commission). (1978). Revised water usage and classification. http://open_jicareport.jica.go.jp/pdf/11948882_17.pdf. Accessed 5 December 2016.Google Scholar
  21. NWRB (National Water Resources Board). (2014). Water allocated for groundwater and surface water consumptive use. Unpublished.Google Scholar
  22. Philex Mining Corporation. (2015). Top 20 stockholders. http://www.philexmining.com.ph/investor-relations/share-information/top-20-stockholders. Accessed 5 Dec 2016.
  23. Republic of the Philippines. (2010). Administrative matter no. 09-6-8-SC. Rules of procedure for environmental cases. Manila: Supreme Court, Republic of the Philippines.Google Scholar
  24. Sazon, R. R. (2016). Environmental impacts of mining operations on the riverine ecosystem of Sta. Cruz, Zambales, Philippines. University of the Philippines Los Baños. Unpublished.Google Scholar
  25. Singapore’s National Water Agency. (2017). Water price. https://www.pub.gov.sg/watersupply/waterprice. Accessed 10 May 2017.
  26. Water Environment Partnership in Asia (WEPA). (n.d.). State of water: Philippines. Retrieved November 15, 2017, from http://www.wepadb.net/policies/state/philippines/overview.htm

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Veronica P. Migo
    • 1
    Email author
  • Marlo D. Mendoza
    • 2
  • Catalino G. Alfafara
    • 1
  • Juan M. Pulhin
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringCollege of Engineering and Agro-Industrial Technology, University of the Philippines Los Baños, CollegeLos BañosPhilippines
  2. 2.Department of Environment and Natural ResourcesField Operations and Staff Bureau, OIC UndersecretaryQuezon CityPhilippines
  3. 3.Department of Social Forestry and Forest GovernanceCollege of Forestry and Natural Re-sources (CFNR), University of the Philippines Los BañosLos BañosPhilippines

Personalised recommendations